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Natural Health Glossary
Medical Terms, Therapies, Accreditation

Don't forget to check the Herbal Remedies/Herbology 101 reference for more definitions!
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abortifacient (abortificant)
Drug or compound that induces the expulsion of an embryo or fetus (induces miscarriage). Several herbs are warned as having abortifacient properties, as they may induce early labour. They include: pennyroyal, bitter melon, rue, nutmeg, pomegranate, parsley, slippery elm.

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abrasion
an abraded area where the skin is torn or worn off

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abscess
localized collection of pus in a cavity (pocket) caused by the disintegration or displacement of tissue due to bacterial infection

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Abscisic Acid (aba)
Abscisic acid (ABA) is an isoprenoid plant hormone that promotes leaf detachment, induces seed and bud dormancy in perennial plants, and inhibits germination. It causes rapid closure of leaf stomata when a leaf begins to wilt. Abscisic acid is synthesized in green fruits at the beginning of the w   (more info - Abscisic Acid)

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Absenteeism
Absenteeism is the term generally used to refer to unscheduled employee absences from the workplace. Many causes of absenteeism are legitimate—personal illness or family issues, for example—but absenteeism also can often be traced to other factors such as a poor work environment or workers who are n   (more info - Absenteeism)

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ACES formula (aces)
The ACES formula is a popularly-touted combination of vitamin A, vitamin C, vitamin E, and Selenium promoted for boosting the immune system, particularly at the onset of the common cold or flu. Studies have found this combination to be useful in those with deficient levels, particularly in reduci   (more info - ACES formula)

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Acetic acid (vinegar)
Acetic acid is the acid most commonly associated with vinegar; it is produced naturally by Acetobacter. Vinegar is typically 4-18% acetic acid by mass and water. Vinegar (dilute acetic acid) is a sour-tasting liquid produced usually by oxidation of the alcohol in wine, beer, cider, or the like an   (more info - Acetic acid)

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Acetylsalicylic acid (aspirin)
The white crystalline acetylated derivative of salicylic acid; used as an analgesic anti-inflammatory drug (trade names Bayer and Empirin) usually taken in tablet form to reduce pain, fever (antipyretic), inflammation, and blood clotting by poisoning platelets. The active ingredient of Aspirin wa   (more info - Acetylsalicylic acid)

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acid
One of a class of compounds, generally but not always distinguished by their sour taste, solubility in water, and reddening of vegetable blue or violet colors. They are also characterized by the power of destroying the distinctive properties of alkalies or bases, combining with them to form salts   (more info - acid)

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acidic (acidity)
A fundamental category of many compounds whose water-based solutions have a sour taste, turn blue litmus paper red, and can combine with metals to form salts. Acids have a pH lower than 7 (strong acids have a pH of less than 3). They are also characterized by the power of destroying the distincti   (more info - acidic)

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acidosis
Too much acid in the body (the blood and other body tissues). For a person with diabetes, this can lead to diabetic ketoacidosis.    (more info - acidosis)

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Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (aids)
An epidemic disease caused by an infection by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1), a retrovirus that causes progressive immune system failure and debilitation and is often accompanied by cancers such as Kaposi's sarcoma as well as secondary infections such as tuberculosis. AIDS is spread through   (more info - Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome)

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acu-yoga
combining yoga and acupressure for the purposes of healing and stimulating the body's natural defenses. It uses yoga positions to apply pressure to the acupoints.

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acupressure
a form of massage in which pressure is applied either by fingers or elbows to the same points of the body as in acupuncture. It is based on the principle of enabling the body's energy ("chi" or "qi") to flow freely. Also see Shiatsu.   (more info - acupressure)

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acupuncture
The insertion of the tips of needles into the skin at specific points for the purpose of treating various disorders by stimulating nerve impulses.   (more info - acupuncture)

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adaptogenic
Defined in the 1940s as a substance found in plants that induce "a heightened state of resistance". This state allows the individual experiencing it to adapt to physical, chemical and biological stresses. It also boosts recovery time and is non-toxic to the individual. An example of an    (more info - adaptogenic)

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Adenoma (polyp)
Adenomas are benign epithelial tumours that develop from glandular tissue. A polyp is a growth protruding from a mucosal plane. Polyps are usually benign, but some have the potential to become cancerous.    (more info - Adenoma)

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adenosine triphosphate (atp)
The major source of energy for cellular reactions. A nucleotide (the basic structural unit of nucleic acids - DNA or RNA) derived from adenosine that occurs in muscle tissue.    (more info - adenosine triphosphate)

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adiponectin
A protein which in humans is encoded by the ADIPOQ gene. It is involved in regulating glucose levels as well as fatty acid breakdown.

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adrenaline (epinephrine)
Adrenaline is a hormone and a neurotransmitter. It increases heart rate, constricts blood vessels, dilates air passages and participates in the fight-or-flight response of the sympathetic nervous system. Adrenaline is produced in some neurons of the central nervous system, and in the chromaffin c   (more info - adrenaline)

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aflatoxin
A fungal toxin which is a powerful liver carcinogen. It is produced by Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus, which grow easily on legumes, grains, and peanuts which are inappropriately stored in warm, humid conditions. The presence of aflatoxins in contaminated food supplies is thought to contri   (more info - aflatoxin)

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African Traditional medicine (traditional african medicine)
A holistic discipline involving indigenous herbalism and African spirituality, typically involving diviners, midwives, and herbalists. Practitioners of traditional African medicine claim to be able to cure various and diverse conditions such as cancers, psychiatric disorders, high blood pressure, ch   (more info - African Traditional medicine)

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Aggression
A feeling of hostility that arouses thoughts of attack; violent action that is hostile and usually unprovoked; deliberately unfriendly behavior; the act of initiating hostilities; or a disposition to behave aggressively. Overt, often harmful, social interaction with the intention of inflicting da   (more info - Aggression)

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Aging (ageing)
The organic process of growing older and showing the effects of increasing age; acquiring desirable qualities by being left undisturbed for some time; growing old. The uninterrupted process of normal development that leads to a progressive decline in physiological function of an organism and ultimat   (more info - Aging)

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aikido
a japanese martial art developed in the first half of the 20th century. a combination of the martial and the relious and political ideologies of the founder, morihei ueshiba, it is founded on a combination of jiu jitsu styles. philosphically, it teaches that all people should be united in a "   (more info - aikido)

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alcohols
Organic chemicals containing one or more hydroxyl groups (-OH). Alcohols can be liquids, semisolids or solids at room temperature. Common alcohols include ethanol ("grain alcohol," the type found in alcoholic beverages) methanol (aka "wood alcohol," can cause blindness and othe   (more info - alcohols)

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alexander technique
a method that works to change (movement) habits in our everyday activities. It is a simple and practical method for improving ease and freedom of movement, balance, support and coordination. The technique teaches the use of the appropriate amount of effort for a particular activity, giving you more    (more info - alexander technique)

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alkali
One of a class of caustic bases, such as soda, potash, ammonia, and lithia, whose distinguishing peculiarities are solubility in alcohol and water, uniting with oils and fats to form soap, neutralizing and forming salts with acids, turning to brown several vegetable yellows, and changing reddened    (more info - alkali)

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alkaloid
An organic base, especially one of a class of substances occurring ready formed in the tissues of plants and the bodies of animals. Some alkaloids have been shown to work against cancer. Alkaloids all contain nitrogen, carbon, and hydrogen, and many of them also contain oxygen. They include ma   (more info - alkaloid)

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alkalosis
Abnormally high alkalinity (low hydrogen-ion concentration) of the blood and other body tissues. (The blood is abnormally low in acidity.)   (more info - alkalosis)

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allergy (allergies)
A harmful immune reaction, either immediate-type or delayed-type hypersensitivity caused by a foreign antigen (i.e. allergen) in food, pollen, or chemicals. In most cases the cause of the allergy is otherwise harmless to the body.

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allopathic/allopathy
To treat a disease allopathically is to treat with substances that produce an effect different from those produced by the disease itself. Compare with Homeopathic.

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alopecia
Clinical term meaning loss of hair.

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Alpha carotene (alpha-carotene)
a-Carotene is a form of carotene with a ß-ring at one end and an e-ring at the opposite end. It is the second most common form of carotene. Dietary intake affects blood levels of a-carotene, and good sources include: yellow-orange vegetables (carrots, sweet potatoes, pumpkin, winter squash)   (more info - Alpha carotene)

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alpha linolenic acid (ala)
A polyunsaturated fatty acid most abundant in canola oil; a fatty acid essential for nutrition.

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alternative complement pathway
An innate component of the immune system's natural defense against infections, which can operate without antibody participation.

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Aluminium (aluminum)
A silvery ductile metallic element found primarily in bauxite. Aluminum is the third most abundant element (after oxygen and silicon), and the most abundant metal, in the Earth's crust. Despite its prevalence in the environment, aluminum salts are not known to be used by any form of life. In keeping   (more info - Aluminium)

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Alzheimer's disease (alzheimer's)
A progressive, neurodegenerative disease characterized by loss of function and death of nerve cells in several areas of the brain leading to loss of cognitive function such as memory and language. The cause of nerve cell death is unknown. Alzheimer's disease is the most common cause of dementia.    (more info - Alzheimer's disease)

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amine
1. Any of the organic compounds produced when one or more hydrogen atoms of ammonia is replaced with organic groups. 2. When used as a suffix in a long name for an organic molecule (i.e. "-amine" in "glucosamine"), it indicates the presence of an -NH2 group.

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amino acid
A class of organic chemical compounds that combine to build proteins; 20 basic amino acids in various combinations make up all the proteins in the human body. The sequence of amino acids in a protein and hence protein function are determined by the genetic code. The body produces many amino acids   (more info - amino acid)

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amino sugar
A monosaccharide, or simple sugar, which has been modified into an amine by the replacement of a hydroxyl group (one oxygen molecule and a hydrogen molecule) with an amino group (one nitrogen molecule and two hydrogen molecules).

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amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (als)
Thickening of tissue in the motor tracts of the lateral columns and anterior horns of the spinal cord; results in progressive muscle atrophy that starts in the limbs. Also called: Lou Gehrig's disease or motor neurone disease. Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis is a debilitating disease with varied et   (more info - amyotrophic lateral sclerosis)

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anabolism (anabolic)
The synthesis of more complex substances from simpler ones, i.e. the constructive metabolism of the body. E.g. building healthy body tissues from dietary calories and protein. Anabolism is a stage of intermediary metabolism in which cell components are synthesized from smaller precursor molecules   (more info - anabolism)

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anaemia (anemia)
A deficiency of red blood cells; a lack of vitality or robustness (usually as the result of the lack of red blood cells). A condition where there is a lower than normal amount of hemoglobin in the blood and red blood cell production is reduced. Often causes pallor and fatigue. Anemia falls into t   (more info - anaemia)

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analgesic (analgesia)
a drug used to relieve pain.

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Anaphylactic shock (anaphylaxis)
A severe and rapid and potentially fatal hypersensitivity reaction to a substance (especially a vaccine or penicillin or shellfish or insect venom) to which the organism has become sensitized by previous exposure. Anaphylaxis is by an extreme allergic reaction or immune response. Anaphylaxis can    (more info - Anaphylactic shock)

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androgenic hormone (androgen)
The male sex hormone that is produced in the testes and responsible for typical male sexual characteristics.

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anesthetic
a drug that causes temporary loss of bodily sensations

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angina
A heart condition marked by paroxysms of chest pain due to reduced oxygen to the heart; any disease of the throat or fauces marked by spasmodic attacks of intense suffocative pain. Chest pain, with sensation of impending death. Pain may radiate into jaw, ear lobes, between shoulder blades or down   (more info - angina)

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angiogenesis
The formation of new blood vessels. This occurs normally during the development of the embryo, but can also occur abnormally around malignant tumors. Tumor angiogenesis is the growth of blood vessels from surrounding tissue to a solid tumor. This is caused by the release of chemicals by the tumor   (more info - angiogenesis)

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anhedonia
An inability to experience pleasure; there are different types of anhedonia, including: sexual, social, and musical. Anhedonia can be a characteristic of mental disorders, including mood disorders [e.g. depression], attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, schizoaffective disorder, borderline pe   (more info - anhedonia)

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anhydride
1. A compound that becomes an acid in the presence of water or becomes a base when water is removed. 2. A compound formed from one or more other compounds in a reaction resulting in removal of water.

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animal assisted therapy (pet therapy)
Also called pet-facilitated therapy. Animal-assisted therapies include any therapy that uses dogs, cats, horses, or other companion animals to improve the physical and mental well-being of patients, most with acute or chronic diseases. It is also being studied as a way to relieve distress in can   (more info - animal assisted therapy)

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anorexia (anorexia nervosa)
Anorexia: An abnormal loss of the appetite for food. Anorexia can be caused by cancer, AIDS, a mental/eating disorder (e.g. anorexia nervosa), or other diseases. Anorexia nervosa: A psychological disorder characterized by somatic delusions that you are too fat despite being emaciated. See also: B   (more info - anorexia)

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anthelmintic (vermifuge)
Also called Antithelmintics, or vermicides. Something capable of causing the evacuation of or destroying parasitic intestinal worms. Examples of naturally occurring anthelmintics include: Tobacco; Moringa oleifera; Neem; Black walnut; wormwood; clove; tansy tea; Garlic; Chive juice.   (more info - anthelmintic)

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anthocyanin
A blue, purple or red, accessory pigment found in plants. Anthocyanins are water-soluble glucosides. Compare carotenoid.    (more info - anthocyanin)

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anti-bacterial (antibacterial)
[n] any drug that destroys bacteria or inhibits their growth [adj] destroying bacteria or inhibiting their growth

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Anti-cancer (cancer)
A broad grouping of various diseases, involving abnormal cells that divide without control. There are over 200 different known cancers that afflict humans. Malignant growths or tumours may spread to other parts of the body through the lymphatic system or the blood stream. Benign tumors do not gro   (more info - Anti-cancer)

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anti-diabetic (antidiabetic)
Drugs used to treat diabetes mellitus by lowering glucose levels in the blood. With the exceptions of insulin, exenatide, liraglutide and pramlintide, all are administered orally and are thus also called oral hypoglycemic agents or oral antihyperglycemic agents. There are different classes of ant   (more info - anti-diabetic)

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anti-microbial (antimicrobial)
An agent (as heat or radiation or a chemical) that destroys microorganisms that might carry disease; [adj] capable of destroying or inhibiting the growth of disease-causing microorganisms. Substances that are harmful to microorganisms (fungi, bacteria, etc.) by either killing them or inhibiting    (more info - anti-microbial)

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anti-neoplastic (antineoplastic)
Any of several chemicals that kill or inhibit the growth of neoplasms (cancer cells), used in chemotherapy. Certain chemotherapeutic agents also have a role in the treatment of other conditions, including: ankylosing spondylitis, multiple sclerosis, Crohn's disease, psoriasis, psoriatic arthritis   (more info - anti-neoplastic)

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anti-parasitic (antiparasitic)
A class of medications which are indicated for the treatment of parasitic diseases such as nematodes, cestodes, trematodes, infectious protozoa, and amoebas. (A parasite is an animal or a plant that lives on or in an organism of another species and gets at least some of its nutrients from it.) Se   (more info - anti-parasitic)

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anti-viral (antiviral)
An agent that kills a virus or that suppresses its ability to replicate and, hence, inhibits its capability to multiply and reproduce

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antibacterial resistance (antibiotic resistance)
The ability of a bacterium to synthesize a protein that either neutralizes an antibiotic or prevents transport of the antibiotic into the cell. Antibiotic resistance is a serious and growing phenomenon in contemporary medicine and has emerged as one of the pre-eminent public health concerns of th   (more info - antibacterial resistance)

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antibiotic
A class of chemical substances, produced by living organisms or synthesized (created) in laboratories, that inhibit the growth of or kill disease-causing microorganisms and cure infections; of or relating to antibiotic drugs. Simple antibiotics are derivable from a mold or bacterium.

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anticarcinogens (chemopreventive)
Chemicals that counteract the effect of a cancer-causing agent. These are effective prior to the development of cancers. Compare antitumour.

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anticoagulant (anti-coagulant)
Medicine that prevents or slows the clotting of blood; prevents change from a liquid to a semisolid, as when blood clots. Also called "blood thinner".

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antidepressant (anti-depressant)
A chemical or therapy having opposite effect of a depressant. Any of a class of drugs used to treat depression; often have undesirable side effects, and difficulty tolerating adverse effects is the most common reason for antidepressant discontinuation. Meditation, omega-3 fatty acids, St John's w   (more info - antidepressant)

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antifungal (fungicidal)
Any agent that destroys or prevents the growth of fungi or their spores. Because certain fungi can break down manufactured materials and buildings, damage crops, and/or become significant pathogens of humans and other animals, methods for inhibiting their growth have been developed for commercial   (more info - antifungal)

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Antihemorrhagic (hemostatic)
Also: styptic, antihaemorrhagic. Prevents bleeding and promotes clotting of blood by contracting the tissues and/or blood vessels; by promoting platelet aggregation; by inhibiting fibrinolysis; or by promoting coagulation. There are several classes of antihemorrhagic drugs used in medicine. Th   (more info - Antihemorrhagic)

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antioxidants
A molecule that inhibits the oxidation (combining with oxygen) or inhibits reactions promoted by peroxides of other molecules, particularly oxidative stress. Any of many chemicals that reduce or prevent oxidation, especially within tissues. Vitamin C is a common antioxidant. Antioxidants also hav   (more info - antioxidants)

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Antipyretic (febrifuge)
Any medicine that lowers body temperature to prevent or alleviate fever. These work by causing the hypothalamus to override an interleukin-induced increase in temperature. The body then works to lower the temperature, resulting in a reduction in fever. Common antipyretics are acetylsalicylic acid   (more info - Antipyretic)

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Antiseptic
A compound that prevents infection or decay by killing a wide range of pathogenic microbes; the condition of being free of pathogenic microbes. Alcohol is a common antiseptic.    (more info - Antiseptic)

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antispasmodic
a drug used to relieve or prevent spasms (especially of the smooth muscles)

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antithelmintic
1. [n] a medication capable of causing the evacuation of parasitic intestinal worms 2. [adj] capable of expelling or destroying parasitic worms.

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Anxiety
1. A vague unpleasant emotion that is experienced in anticipation of some (usually ill-defined) misfortune; 2. A relatively permanent state of anxiety occurring in a variety of mental disorders. Anxiety is considered to be a normal reaction to a stressor. It may help an individual to deal with a   (more info - Anxiety)

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aphrodisiac
arouses or enhances instinctive sexual desire.

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aphthous ulcer
a blister on the mucous membranes of the lips or mouth or gastrointestinal tract

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Apigenin
A natural flavonoid found in many herbs, as for example Chamomile (Anthemis nobilis), dandelion coffee, as well as in apples, celery and also in some spices as oregano, tarragon, cilantro, basil and parsley. It was recently shown that apigenin induces a process called autophagia (a kind of cellul   (more info - Apigenin)

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apoenzyme
A protein that combines with a coenzyme to form an active enzyme. The inactive protein part of an enzyme; it doesn't include any non-protein cofactors or side groups that might be needed for the enzyme to engage in catalytic activity.

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apoptosis
A cell suicide mechanism that enables metazoans (all animals except protozoans and sponges) to control cell number and eliminate cells that threaten the animal's survival. Programed cell death as signalled by the nuclei in normally functioning human and animal cells when age or state of cell   (more info - apoptosis)

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APP
Associate Polarity Practitioner - Accreditation granted by APTA - American Polarity Therapy Association.

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appetite
A feeling of craving something, e.g. "an appetite for life". The desire for some personal gratification, either of the body or of the mind. In biological processes, appetite is the desire to eat food, felt as hunger. Appetite exists in all higher life-forms, and serves to regulate adequate energy   (more info - appetite)

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Apple cider vinegar (cider vinegar)
Vinegar made from apple cider (an alcoholic beverage made from the fermented juice) or apple must (freshly pressed fruit juice). Unpasteurized or organic ACV contains mother of vinegar, which has a cobweb-like appearance and can make the vinegar look slightly congealed. Bacteria and yeast are add   (more info - Apple cider vinegar)

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arachidonic acid (aa)
A polyunsaturated omega-6 fatty acid that humans use to synthesize regulatory molecules such as prostaglandins and thromboxanes. It is found in fatty animal tissue such as egg yolk, dairy, and liver. It is the counterpart to the saturated arachidic acid found in peanut oil, (L. arachis -- peanut.   (more info - arachidonic acid)

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arginine (ararginine)
A bitter tasting amino acid found in proteins and necessary for nutrition; its absence from the diet leads to a reduced production of spermatozoa. Arginine is a conditionally nonessential amino acid, meaning most of the time it can be manufactured by the human body, and does not need to be obtain   (more info - arginine)

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aromachology (aromacology)
The general study of the influence of odors on behavior. These odours may be from a wide variety of sources, natural and chemical. Compare to: Aromatherapy, the application of aromachological knowledge, using only natural plant matter.

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aromatherapy
The therapeutic use of aromatic substances to promote the health of body, mind and spirit (preferably essential or volatile oils or hydrosols from plants rather than synthetic fragrance oils). Generally a pleasurable way of caring for the body, mind, and spirit. Treatment with essential oils typ   (more info - aromatherapy)

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arsenic
1. A very poisonous metallic element that has three allotropic forms; arsenic and arsenic compounds are used as herbicides and insecticides and various alloys; found in arsenopyrite and orpiment and realgar; 2. A white powdered poisonous trioxide of arsenic; used in manufacturing glass and as a pes   (more info - arsenic)

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Art therapy
Art therapy is a form of psychotherapy that combines the creative process of art making with the theories of psychology. Creating art can in and of itself be a form of self-expression and healing, but it can also be used as a tool to facilitate verbal communication and to help achieve therapeuti   (more info - Art therapy)

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artemisinin (qinghaosu)
A group of drugs that possess the most rapid action of all current drugs against Plasmodium falciparum malaria. The starting compound artemisinin is isolated from the plant Artemisia annua, sweet wormwood, an herb employed in traditional Chinese medicine. Use of the drug by itself as a monotherap   (more info - artemisinin)

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arteries
A blood vessel that carries oxygenated blood away from the heart to the body. Arteries are thicker and have walls that are stronger and more elastic than the walls of veins, and are connected to them by capillaries.

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arteriosclerosis
A condition in which fatty material is deposited along the walls of arteries. This fatty material thickens, hardens, and may eventually block the arteries. A group of diseases in which the walls of the arteries get thick and hard. In one type of arteriosclerosis, fat builds up inside the walls and    (more info - arteriosclerosis)

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Arthritis
A disease marked by inflammation and pain in the joints. There are over 100 different forms of arthritis, but two common types of arthritis are rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis. Regardless of the type of arthritis, the common symptoms for all arthritis disorders include varied levels of p   (more info - Arthritis)

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ascorbic acid (vitamin c)
A vitamin found in fresh fruits (especially citrus fruits) and vegetables that prevents scurvy. Vitamin C is used by the body to create collagen, to speed the healing process, to aid the immune system, to help synthesize hormones, to absorb iron, and as an antioxidant. Vitamin C is abundantly fou   (more info - ascorbic acid)

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asthma
A respiratory disorder characterized by wheezing; usually of allergic origin. Symptoms include: recurrent attacks of wheezing, shortness of breath, cough, and a feeling of tightness in the chest. This respiratory disease is characterized by an increased responsiveness of the trachea and bronchi t   (more info - asthma)

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astragalin
A 3-O-glucoside of kaempferol.

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astringent (astringency)
Any substance or agent that causes tissues to contract or that inhibits secretion of fluids such as mucus or blood.

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ataxia
1. A loss of normal muscular coordination. 2. This is a condition in which a person is not able to coordinate his or her muscle movements; as a result, he or she cannot walk or move properly.

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atherosclerotic plaque (atherosclerosis)
A stage of arteriosclerosis involving deposits (atheromas) inside the arterial walls. Atherosclerotic plaque is a collection of white blood cells (primarily macrophages) and lipids (including cholesterol) in the wall of an artery -- that is particularly unstable and prone to produce sudden major pro   (more info - atherosclerotic plaque)

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Atrial fibrillation (ventricular fibrillation)
Fibrillation (rapid irregular twitchings) of the muscles of the atria (chambers) of the heart. A disorder of heart rhythm in which the normally regular contractions of theatria of the heart are replaced by rapid and random twitchings, resulting in irregular and usually faster than usual contracti   (more info - Atrial fibrillation)

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attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (adhd)
A neurobehavioral disorder characterized by behavioral and learning disorders. It often involves excessive restlessness and movement (hyperactivity), significant difficulties of inattention and impulsiveness -- or a combination of the two. ADHD is diagnosed two to four times more frequently in boys   (more info - attention deficit hyperactivity disorder)

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Attention-bias Modification Training (abmt)
Attentional retraining is the retraining of automatic attentional processes. The method of retraining varies but has typically employed computerized training programs. ABMT, specifically, is the the retraining of automatic attentional biases that have been observed in high levels of anxiety. The    (more info - Attention-bias Modification Training)

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audioanalgesia
Using music, white noise, or other sound to sedate a patient and reduce or eliminate pain during medical procedures. Audioanalgesia is commonly used during dental procedures, labour, and childbirth. It can be used in conjunction with other analgesia, anesthetics or sedation (e.g. pharmacological,   (more info - audioanalgesia)

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autism spectrum disorders (autism)
A type of pervasive developmental disorder defined by the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) as "a developmental disability significantly affecting verbal and nonverbal communication and social interaction, usually evident before age 3, that adversely affects a child's educational pe   (more info - autism spectrum disorders)

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autocrine
A secretion which affects only the cell from which it was secreted.

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Autogenic training (autogenics)
Training patients in self-induced relaxation. A method for achieving relaxation based upon passive concentration and body awareness of specific sensations. Developed in the early 20th century by the German psychiatrist Johannes Heinrich Schultz and first published in 1932, autogenic training all   (more info - Autogenic training)

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autoimmune disorder (autoimmune disease)
A condition in which the body recognizes its own tissues as foreign and directs an immune response against them. In other words, the immune system mistakes some part of the body as a pathogen and attacks its own cells. This may be restricted to certain organs (e.g. in autoimmune thyroiditis) or i   (more info - autoimmune disorder)

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autophagocytosis (autophagy)
The feeding of the body upon itself, as in fasting; nutrition by consumption of one's own tissues. It is the basic catabolic mechanism that involves cell degradation of unnecessary or dysfunctional cellular components through the lysosomal machinery, and the breakdown of cellular components can ensu   (more info - autophagocytosis)

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ayurveda (ayurvedic medicine)
Ayurveda means "the science of life" (veda - knowledge, ayus - life). According to Ayurveda, to be "healthy" is not only to be free of disease, but also to be in a state of balance in all aspects of the human body, including the mind and soul.   (more info - ayurveda)

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basic (alkaline)
Relating to or containing an alkali; "alkaline soils derived from chalk or limestone". A base; a compound whose water-based solutions have a pH higher than 7, a bitter taste, a slippery feel in water, turn red litmus paper blue, and can react with acids to form salts.

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Cardiac dysrhythmia (arrhythmia)
Any of a class of events involving abnormal rate of muscle contractions (electrical activity)in the heart. The heartbeat may be too fast or too slow, and may be regular or irregular. A heart beat that is too fast is called tachycardia and a heart beat that is too slow is called bradycardia. They    (more info - Cardiac dysrhythmia)

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cardio (aerobic exercise)
Exercise that increases the need for oxygen; brisk exercise which promotes circulation of oxygen through the blood. Aerobic literally means "living in air", and refers to the use of oxygen to adequately meet energy demands during exercise via aerobic metabolism. Generally, light-to-moderate in   (more info - cardio)

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chemotherapy (antitumour)
Counteracting or preventing the formation of malignant tumours. Loosely, it is the use of chemicals or drugs designed to selectively kill faster-growing cancer cells. In pharmacology: Used in the treatment of cancer; any of several drugs that control or kill neoplastic cells; used in chemotherapy   (more info - chemotherapy)

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Chinese Massage (anma)
(see also: Acupressure and Tui Na.) Anma is a deep tissue massage performed without oil, using a primarily kneading, percussion, stretching, and squeezing techniques. The underlying goal is to restore the flow of Qi (the natural life energy) throughout the body.   (more info - Chinese Massage)

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hepatoprotective (antihepatotoxic)
The ability to prevent damage to the liver.

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histamine antagonist (antihistamine)
A medicine used to treat allergies and hypersensitive reactions and colds; works by counteracting the production or effects of histamines in the inflammatory process, typically the effects on a receptor site. Antihistamines suppress the histamine-induced wheal response (swelling) and flare respon   (more info - histamine antagonist)

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inflammatory (anti-inflammatory)
Inflammatory: characterized or caused by inflammation; e.g. "an inflammatory process"; "an inflammatory response" Anti-inflammatory: intended to reduce inflammation (the characteristic reaction of tissues to injury or disease marked by four signs: swelling, redness, heat, and pain).    (more info - inflammatory)

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macular degeneration (amd)
An eye disease caused by degeneration of the cells of the macula lutea (the small yellowish central area of the retina that is rich in cones and that mediates clear detailed vision). The center of the inner lining of the eye, suffers thinning, atrophy, and in some cases, bleeding, which results in b   (more info - macular degeneration)

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mutagen (antimutagenic)
Mutagens are agents (physical or environmental) that can induce a genetic mutation (a permanent genetic change in a cell) or can increase the rate of mutation. Common mutagens include UV radiation, ethyl bromide and 5-Bromouracil. Compare with teratogen. Antimutagenic agents inhibit mutations.    (more info - mutagen)

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Paracetamol (acetaminophen)
An analgesic drug that reduces mild pain and fever (antipyretic), but not inflammation. Datril and Tylenol and Panadol and Phenaphen and Tempra and Anacin III are trademarks of brands of acetaminophen tablets. The words acetaminophen and paracetamol both come from a chemical name for the compound: p   (more info - Paracetamol)

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substance abuse (addiction)
A patterned use of some substance resulting in the state of being physically or psychologically dependent; being abnormally tolerant to and dependent on something that is psychologically or physically habit-forming (especially alcohol or narcotic drugs). The user consumes the substance in amounts   (more info - substance abuse)

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