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Natural Health Glossary
Medical Terms, Therapies, Accreditation

Don't forget to check the Herbal Remedies/Herbology 101 reference for more definitions!
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Anti-cancer (cancer)
A broad grouping of various diseases, involving abnormal cells that divide without control. There are over 200 different known cancers that afflict humans. Malignant growths or tumours may spread to other parts of the body through the lymphatic system or the blood stream. Benign tumors do not gro   (more info - Anti-cancer)

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anticarcinogens (chemopreventive)
Chemicals that counteract the effect of a cancer-causing agent. These are effective prior to the development of cancers. Compare antitumour.

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Apple cider vinegar (cider vinegar)
Vinegar made from apple cider (an alcoholic beverage made from the fermented juice) or apple must (freshly pressed fruit juice). Unpasteurized or organic ACV contains mother of vinegar, which has a cobweb-like appearance and can make the vinegar look slightly congealed. Bacteria and yeast are add   (more info - Apple cider vinegar)

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bronchitis (chest cold)
Inflammation (swelling and reddening) of the bronchi and the membranes lining the bronchial tubes, typically causes bronchospasm and coughing. Bronchitis is divided into two types: acute and chronic. Acute bronchitis is also known as a chest cold.    (more info - bronchitis)

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C-reactive protein (crp)
A byproduct of inflammation; a globulin that is found in the blood in some cases of acute inflammation. C-reactive protein is not normally found in blood, but when it is present, it indicates inflammation. In vitro it will precipitate when exposed to somatic C-polysaccharide (a complex sugar mole   (more info - C-reactive protein)

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cadmium
A comparatively rare element, soft, bluish-white, ductile, malleable, toxic, bivalent, and metallic; cadmium occurs in association with zinc ores. With the exception of its use in nickel-cadmium batteries and cadmium telluride solar panels, the use of cadmium is generally decreasing. These declin   (more info - cadmium)

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Caffeic acid
A chlorogenic acid (organic compound that is classified as hydroxycinnamic acid) found in the bark of Eucalyptus globulus, in the freshwater fern Salvinia molesta, and in the mushroom Phellinus linteus. Caffeic acid is also found in coffee, in barley grain, and is one of the main natural phenols in    (more info - Caffeic acid)

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caffeine
A bitter alkaloid found in coffee and tea that is responsible for their stimulating effects on the central nervous system. A white, bitter, crystallizable substance, that is identical with the alkaloid theine from tea leaves, and with guaranine from guarana. Caffeine has diuretic effects, but   (more info - caffeine)

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CAHT
Certified Aromatherapy Health Therapist - designation granted by the Canadian Examining Board of Health Care Practitioners after completing the corresponding diploma.

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calciferol
naturally occuring in vitamin fish oils and eggs, this form of vitamin D is also called vitamin D2. helps prevent rickets.

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calcium
A mineral found in teeth, bones, and other body tissues (99% of the body's calcium supply is found i bones and teeth). Vitamin D is required for calcium absorption. Calcium is essential in the human diet (people normally consume 600-1400 milligrams per day). The body needs it for a variety of fu   (more info - calcium)

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callus
A protruding mass of hardened plant tissue, often formed after an injury but sometimes a regular feature of the plant. Adj. callose. A small area of skin, usually on the foot, that has become thick and hard from rubbing or pressure. Calluses may lead to other problems such as serious infection. Sh   (more info - callus)

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Caloric restriction (calorie restriction)
A regimen where an individual consumes fewer calories than average, but not so few that they become malnourished. Individuals practicing caloric restriction without malnutrition have lower levels of total and abdominal fat, circulating insulin, testosterone, estradiol and inflammatory cytokines.    (more info - Caloric restriction)

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Calorie
A unit of measure of heat derived from combustion of fuel, such as food; energy that comes from food. Strictly speaking, a calorie (note lower-case c) is the unit of heat equal to the amount of heat required to raise the temperature of one kilogram of water by one degree at one atmosphere pressu   (more info - Calorie)

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camphor
A substance that comes from the wood and bark of the camphor tree or is made in the laboratory. It has a very unique smell and taste and is used in commercial products (for example, mothballs). Camphor is used in topical anti-infective and anti-pruritic (anti-itching) agents. Inhaled, camphor helps   (more info - camphor)

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campylobacter
* Campylobacter is a bacteria commonly found in the intestines of poultry, cattle, swine, rodents, wild birds and such household pets as cats and dogs. It can also be found in untreated water. * People may develop a Campylobacter infection when they eat undercooked poultry or drink raw milk, or no   (more info - campylobacter)

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candida albicans
Candida albicans is a species of yeast which is commonly found in the mouth, intestines, and vagina as a part of the human body's normal flora and which normally does not cause problems. However, it can cause candidiasis of the mucous membranes in the mouth (also called thrush) and of the vagin   (more info - candida albicans)

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candidiasis
A mild infection caused by the caused by Candida fungi (of the genus Monilia or Candida especially Candida albicans), which lives naturally in the gastrointestinal tract. Infection occurs when a change in the body, such as surgery, causes the fungus to overgrow suddenly.

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capillaries
tiny blood vessels between arteries and veins that distribute oxygen-rich blood to the body.

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capsaicin
1. A colorless pungent crystalline compound derived from capsicum; source of the hotness of hot peppers of the genus Capsicum such as chili and cayenne and jalapeno. 2. A topical ointment made from chili peppers used to relieve the pain of peripheral neuropathy. Capsaicin is an irritant for mam   (more info - capsaicin)

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Carbohydrates
A type of food, usually from plants versus animals. Carbohydrates include simple carbohydrates (sugar, fruit) and complex carbohydrates (vegetables, starches). One of three nutrients that supply calories to the body, the body also uses carbohydrates to make a substance called glycogen that is stored   (more info - Carbohydrates)

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carbon neutral
Balancing the net carbon dioxide that you output into the atmosphere through energy consumption - both personal and business-related. Ways to compensate can include anything from funding alternate energy sources through planting trees.   (more info - carbon neutral)

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Cardiac dysrhythmia (arrhythmia)
Any of a class of events involving abnormal rate of muscle contractions (electrical activity)in the heart. The heartbeat may be too fast or too slow, and may be regular or irregular. A heart beat that is too fast is called tachycardia and a heart beat that is too slow is called bradycardia. They    (more info - Cardiac dysrhythmia)

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cardio (aerobic exercise)
Exercise that increases the need for oxygen; brisk exercise which promotes circulation of oxygen through the blood. Aerobic literally means "living in air", and refers to the use of oxygen to adequately meet energy demands during exercise via aerobic metabolism. Generally, light-to-moderate in   (more info - cardio)

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carminative
[n] medication that prevents the formation of gas in the alimentary tract or eases its passing [adj] relieving gas in the alimentary tract (colic or flatulence or griping)

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carnitine
A dipolar compound found in muscle, kidneys, and the liver, which is involved in the transport of fatty acids into mitochondria, where they are metabolized. Carnitine is an essential fatty acid metabolism cofactor biosynthesized from the amino acids lysine and methionine. Carnitines exert a subst   (more info - carnitine)

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carotene
A class of yellow or orange-red fat-soluble pigments (isomers of unsaturated hydrocarbon) found in many plants; is converted into vitamin A in the liver. These include alpha-carotene, beta carotene, gamma-carotene, and lycopene. Carotenes are responsible for the orange colour of the carrot, for w   (more info - carotene)

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carotenoids
A group of red, orange, purple or yellow pigments (flavonoids) typically found as accessory pigments in plants and some fungi. They are fat-soluble and are called lipochromes when they are found concentrated in animal fat. Carotenoids are widely used as food colorings, and one pigment, ß   (more info - carotenoids)

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carpal tunnel syndrome
A disorder caused by compression of a nerve in the carpal tunnel (where the nerve passes through the wrist); characterized by discomfort and weakness in the hand. Carpal Tunnel Syndrome may occur in people with diabetes.

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carrier oil
Also called: base oils Carrier oils are vegetable oils which are used to dilute an essential oil. Most essential or volatile oils are not recommended for use directly on the skin in their highly concentrated form. Some cause photosensitivity, others cause irritation, and others are to be avoi   (more info - carrier oil)

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cartilage
Tough elastic but flexible connective tissue found in humans and other animals that is mostly converted to bone in adults; the smooth material that covers bone ends of a joint to cushion the bone and allow the joint to move easily without pain. Cartilage is found in many parts of the body includi   (more info - cartilage)

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catabolic (catabolism)
The breakdown of more complex substances into simpler ones with release of energy. In biochemistry, it specifically refers to the energy-producing breakdown of nutrient molecules (as a source of calories). In catabolism, large molecules such as polysaccharides, lipids, nucleic acids and proteins    (more info - catabolic)

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Cataracts
Clouding of the natural lens of the eye that impairs vision. There are many causes of cataracts including aging, diabetes, cortisone medication, trauma, or other diseases. It is the most common cause of blindness and is conventionally treated with surgery. Visual loss occurs because opacification   (more info - Cataracts)

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catechin
One of the tannic acids, extracted from catechu as a white, crystalline substance; also called catechuic acid, and catechuin. Catechins can be found in foods, such as epicatechin (in cacao beans), D-catechin (in the kola nut), and (+)-catechin (in acai oil).

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Cathelicidin
Family of antimicrobial peptides found primarily in immune cells (found in lysosomes of macrophages and polymorphonuclear leukocytes) and transcribed by the Vitamin D Receptor. Cathelicidins serve a critical role in the mammalian immune system defense against invasive bacterial infection. Patient   (more info - Cathelicidin)

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CCH
Certified in Classical Homeopathy by the Council for Homeopathic Certification

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Celiac disease (coeliac disease)
An autoimmune disorder of the small intestine that occurs in genetically predisposed people of all ages from middle infancy onward. Symptoms include chronic diarrhoea, failure to thrive (in children), and fatigue, but these may be absent, and symptoms in other organ systems have been described.    (more info - Celiac disease)

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cellulite
Lumpy, dimpled deposits of body fat especially on women's thighs and buttocks. These subcutaneous pockets of fat are actually causing the tissue holding the skin to the underlying tissue to stretch. Exercise will not reduce these pockets, and they can become infected and inflamed by a bacterial i   (more info - cellulite)

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cellulose
A polysaccharide that is the chief constituent of all plant tissues and fibers, as well as many forms of algae and the oomycetes. Some plant materials, like cotton, are almost entirely cellulose, where others have less cellulose (like wood). It is also found to a slight extent in certain animals, as   (more info - cellulose)

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Cerebrovascular accident (stroke)
A sudden loss of consciousness resulting when the rupture or occlusion of a blood vessel leads to oxygen lack in the brain. Depending on the part of the brain affected, a stroke can cause a person to lose the ability to speak or move a part of the body such as an arm or a leg. Stroke is the secon   (more info - Cerebrovascular accident)

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Chair Massage
A combination of Swedish massage, Shiatsu, and Acupressure performed in a specially-designed, portable chair, without oil, usually on-site. The client remains clothed throughout the session, which is usually shorter than a table massage session.   (more info - Chair Massage)

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CHC
Council for Homeopathic Certification

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CHE
Council for Homeopathic Education

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cheilosis
A disorder of the lips marked by scaling and fissures at the corners of the mouth; caused by a deficiency of riboflavin

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chelates (chelation)
A chelator is an organic chemical that bonds with and removes free metal ions from solutions. Chelating agents are sometimes used to treat people suffering from metal poisoning. Chelators are used in producing nutritional supplements, fertilizers, chemical analysis, as water softeners, commercial   (more info - chelates)

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cheloid
raised pinkish scar tissue at the site of an injury; results from excessive tissue repair

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chemotherapy (antitumour)
Counteracting or preventing the formation of malignant tumours. Loosely, it is the use of chemicals or drugs designed to selectively kill faster-growing cancer cells. In pharmacology: Used in the treatment of cancer; any of several drugs that control or kill neoplastic cells; used in chemotherapy   (more info - chemotherapy)

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chi gung
Qigong comes from two Chinese words: Qi (chi) means energy and gong (kung) means a skill or a practice. It seeks to stimulate the flow of qi (the elemental life force of Chinese medicine) along the invisible channels, or meridians, that are thought to course throughout the body, through a series of   (more info - chi gung)

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Chinese Massage (anma)
(see also: Acupressure and Tui Na.) Anma is a deep tissue massage performed without oil, using a primarily kneading, percussion, stretching, and squeezing techniques. The underlying goal is to restore the flow of Qi (the natural life energy) throughout the body.   (more info - Chinese Massage)

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chinese medicine
A heading that encompasses a vast field of modalities and practices, from acupuncture, through herbal remedies, through Qi Gong. See TCM (Traditional Chinese Medicine) for details.

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chiropody
the branch of medicine concerned with the feet.

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chiropractic (chiropractor)
A method of treatment that manipulates body structures (especially the spine) to relieve low back pain, headache, or high blood pressure. Chiropractic is a drug-free, non-surgical science concerned with human health and disease processes, in particular the diagnosis, treatment and prevention of d   (more info - chiropractic)

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chitin
A tough semitransparent polysaccharide that serves as a structural molecule in the shells of insects and crustaceans and in the flesh of fungi.

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Chlorogenic acid (cga)
A family of esters of hydroxycinnamic acids (caffeic acid, ferulic acid and p-coumaric acid) with quinic acid. Chlorogenic acids contain no chlorine. The name comes from the Greek chloros (light green) and -genic (a suffix meaning "giving rise to"), because of the green color produced when chlorogen   (more info - Chlorogenic acid)

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chlorophyll
A group of green pigments (flavonoids) found in photosynthetic organisms. Chlorophyll is present in all green plants and in cyanobacteria, responsible for the absorption of light to provide energy for photosynthesis. Its molecule contains a magnesium atom held in a porphyrin ring. Chlorophyll pro   (more info - chlorophyll)

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chlorophyllin
Any one of a group of closely related anti-mutagenic water-soluble salts that are semi-synthetic derivatives of chlorophyll. Because chlorophyll does not dissolve in water, food sources of chlorophyll do not bind to mutagenic substances to a significant extent. Chlorophyllin, being water-soluble,   (more info - chlorophyllin)

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cholecalciferol
a form of vitamin d created when ultraviolet light reacts with steroids in your body fat. it helps prevent rickets. Vitamin d3.

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cholecarciferol
A fat-soluble vitamin that prevents rickets.

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cholesterol
A fat-like substance found in blood, muscle, liver, brain, and other tissues in people and animals. The body makes and needs some cholesterol. Too much cholesterol, however, may cause fat to build up in the artery walls and cause a disease that slows or stops the flow of blood.   (more info - cholesterol)

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Choline
A thick, alkaline, water-and-alcohol soluble liquid in the vitamin B complex. It is a constituent of lecithin; essential in the metabolism of fat. It acts mainly to inhibit lipid decomposition in the liver and to lower blood pressure. Choline is found in vegetables, seeds, beans, organ meats, and   (more info - Choline)

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CHom
Certificate of Homeopathy Vancouver Homeopathic Academy (former 3 Year Programme)

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chondrin
A colorless or bluish-white, amorphous, nitrogenous substance, tasteless and odorless, derived from cartilaginous tissue by long-continued action of boiling water. It is similar to gelatin, and is in fact a large ingredient of commercial gelatin.   (more info - chondrin)

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chondroitin sulfate
A carbohydrate (specifically a major glycosaminoglycan) found in cartilage, thought to promote water retention and elasticity. Studies have also shown it to prevent the development or accumulation of enzymes that destroy cartilage and that it helps to fight inflammation. Ensure that the produc   (more info - chondroitin sulfate)

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chrome (chromium)
A hard brittle blue-white multivalent metallic element; resistant to corrosion and tarnishing. Its chief commercial importance is for its compounds, as potassium chromate, lead chromate, etc., which are brilliantly colored and are used dyeing and calico printing. Trivalent chromium (Cr(III)) ion    (more info - chrome)

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chronic disease (chronic illness)
In medicine, the opposite of chronic is acute, thus a chronic condition or disease is one that is persistent or otherwise long-lasting in its effects, an usually applied when the course of the disease lasts for more than three months. A chronic course is further distinguished from a recurrent course   (more info - chronic disease)

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chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (copd)
A chronic, progressive disorder characterized by difficulty breathing, and especially in expelling air from the lungs; often patients have been heavy cigarette smokers. More specifically, it is the occurrence of chronic bronchitis or emphysema, a pair of commonly co-existing diseases of the lungs in   (more info - chronic obstructive pulmonary disease)

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cicatrise
[v] form a scab; of wounds [v] form a scar, after an injury; "the skin will cicatrize and it will heal soon"

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cicatrize
[v] form a scab; of wounds [v] form a scar, after an injury; "the skin will cicatrize and it will heal soon"

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cinnabar (mercury)
A heavy silvery toxic univalent and bivalent metallic element, named by the alchemists after the god Mercury; a metallic element mostly obtained by reduction from cinnabar (mercuric sulfide), one of its ores. It is the only metal that is liquid at standard room temperature. Mercury is a heavy, op   (more info - cinnabar)

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Cinnamic acid
An organic compound that occurs naturally in a number of plants. It is freely soluble in many organic solvents. It exists as both a cis and a trans isomer, although the latter is more common.    (more info - Cinnamic acid)

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circadian clock (circadian rhythm)
A daily cycle of activity observed in many living organisms, also called biological time. Circadian rhythm refers to any biological process that displays an endogenous, entrainable oscillation of about 24 hours, whereas the circadian clock (or "circadian oscillator") is the underlying biochemical   (more info - circadian clock)

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cirrhosis
A chronic, progressive disease interfering with the normal functioning of the liver. Cirrhosis may be caused by excessive, long-term consumption of alcohol or by diseases such as hepatitis. Cirrhosis is characterized by the formation of nodules and dense scar tissue in the liver, which may severe   (more info - cirrhosis)

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citric acid
A weak water-soluble acid found in many fruits (especially citrus fruits); used as a flavoring agent.   (more info - citric acid)

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citrulline
An amino acid that does not occur in proteins but is an intermediate in the conversion of ornithine to arginine. Citrulline has been found to relax blood vessels. Proteins that normally contain citrulline residues include: myelin basic protein (MBP), filaggrin, and several histone proteins, wh   (more info - citrulline)

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clostridium botulinum
* In adults, Clostridium botulinum (C. botulinum) itself does not make people ill, but the poisons produced by the pathogen do. * Canned (especially home canned) low acid foods may contain C. botulinum, however some cases occur from eating raw or parboiled meats from marine mammals. * Symptoms can   (more info - clostridium botulinum)

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clostridium perfringens
* Clostridium perfringens (C. perfringens) is a spore-forming bacteria which produces a toxin in the intestinal tract of people who have eaten food containing many of the bacteria. * This organism can be found in high protein or starch-like foods such as cooked beans and gravies and is espe   (more info - clostridium perfringens)

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CNHP
Certified Natural Health Practitioner - designation granted by the Canadian Examining Board of Health Care Practitioners after completing the corresponding diploma.

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Coagulation
The change from a liquid to a thickened, curdlike, insoluble state, not by evaporation, but by some kind of chemical reaction; as, the spontaneous coagulation of freshly drawn blood; the coagulation of milk by rennet, or acid, and the coagulation of egg albumin by heat. Coagulation is generally the    (more info - Coagulation)

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cobalamin (vitamin b12)
A unique water-soluble vitamin that is vital to the brain and nervous system, including protecting myelin. Vitamin B12 is required for proper red blood cell formation, neurological function, and DNA synthesis. Deficiency results in: pernicious anemia and can potentially cause severe and irreversi   (more info - cobalamin)

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cobalamine
This ring-shaped, cobalt-containing vitamin is a crucial part of the entry of amino acids and fatty acids into the Krebs cycle. It is the only biomolecule known to have a carbon-metal bond. Also called vitamin B12.

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coenzyme
A small molecule (not a protein but sometimes a vitamin) essential for the activity of some enzymes. An organic, nonprotein molecule that binds with an apoenzyme (a protein molecule) to form an active enzyme (catalytic activity). Coenzymes are often derived from vitamins.   (more info - coenzyme)

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coenzyme q10
Coenzyme Q10 (also known as CoQ10, Q10, vitamin Q10, ubiquinone, or ubidecarenone) is used by cells to produce energy needed for cell growth and maintenance and as an antioxidant. See also: coenzyme, and vitamin K.    (more info - coenzyme q10)

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Cognitive behavioral therapy (cbt)
A psychological approach to treating disorders based on scientific principles. Clients and therapists work together to identify and understand problems in terms of the relationship between thoughts, feelings and behaviour. The approach usually focuses on difficulties in the here and now, and rel   (more info - Cognitive behavioral therapy)

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cognitive decline (cognitive impairment)
The worsening or decay of a group of mental processes that includes attention, memory, producing and understanding language, learning, reasoning, problem solving, and decision making (cognition).

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cognitive function (cognition)
Pertaining to the mental process of thought, including perception, reasoning, intuition, learning, and memory, and the psychological results. Cognition is a faculty for the processing and storing of information, applying knowledge, and changing preferences. Cognition, or cognitive processes, can    (more info - cognitive function)

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Cognitive Rehabilitation Therapy (crt)
A program to help brain-injured or otherwise cognitively impaired individuals to restore normal functioning, or to compensate for cognitive deficits. Cognitive rehabilitation therapy has been shown to be effective for individuals who suffered a stroke in the left or right hemisphere. It may also    (more info - Cognitive Rehabilitation Therapy)

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Cognitive training (brain training)
Also called: Brain fitness. The the capacity of a person to meet the various cognitive demands of life. Brain fitness can be developed by formal education, being actively mentally engaged in life, continuing to learn, and exercises designed to challenge cognitive skills. Healthy lifestyle habi   (more info - Cognitive training)

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colic
acute abdominal pain (especially in infants) produced by intermittent spasm.

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Colitis (ulcerative colitis)
Colitis: inflammation of the colon. Ulcerative colitis is a form of chronic inflammatory bowel disease that involves the mucosa of the colon and rectum. The common symptoms are bloody diarrhea and stomach cramps; patients usually have anemia and low serum albumin. Abdominal x-ray films show a di   (more info - Colitis)

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Collagen
A fibrous scleroprotein in bone and cartilage and tendon and other connective tissue that yields gelatin on boiling. It is the organic fraction of bone as distinct from the mineral or carbonate portion. Collagen is the most abundant protein in mammals, making up about 25% to 35% of the whole-body   (more info - Collagen)

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colloid
A mixture (very like a solution or a suspension) where very fine particles are dispersed in a second substance in such a way that they cannot easily be filtered out or settled. The particles are so tiny that they measure between 10 to 10,000 angstroms in size.

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colloidal
Microscopic particles suspended in some sort of liquid medium. The particles are between one nanometer and one micrometer in size and can be macromolecules.

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Compassion
The humane quality of understanding the suffering of others and wanting to do something about it; a deep awareness of and sympathy for another's suffering. More involved than simple empathy, compassion commonly gives rise to an active desire to alleviate another's suffering. Individuals with a hi   (more info - Compassion)

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complement factor h (cfh)
Part of the immune system; a large (155 kilodaltons), soluble glycoprotein that circulates in human plasma (at a concentration of 500 - 800 micrograms per milliliter). Its principal function is to regulate the alternative complement pathway, to make sure that the complement system is directed tow   (more info - complement factor h)

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compress
a cloth soaked in an herbal infusion or decoction and pressed against irritated areas of the skin

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Concussion
A shaking or agitation; a shock; caused by the collision of two bodies. A form of brain injury caused by a blow; usually resulting in loss of consciousness. Common causes include sports injuries, bicycle accidents, car accidents, and falls, the latter two being the most frequent among adults. In   (more info - Concussion)

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congestion
The presence of excessive blood or fluid, such as mucus, in an organ or tissue. When used in relation to colds, excessive mucus build up.

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Constipation
The act of making something futile and useless (as by routine); irregular and infrequent or difficult evacuation of the bowels, can be a symptom of intestinal obstruction or diverticulitis. Severe constipation includes obstipation (failure to pass stools or gas) and fecal impaction, which can progre   (more info - Constipation)

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contagious (contagion)
Any disease easily transmitted by contact; The communication of an attitude or emotional state among a number of people; "a contagion of mirth"; "the infection of his enthusiasm for poetry" An incident in which an infectious disease is transmitted.

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contraindication
Inadvisability of using a substance that may cause harm under specific circumstances.

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contusion
A bruise or contusion is a traumatic injury of the soft tissues which results in breakage of the local capillaries and leakage of red blood cells. In the skin it can be seen as a reddish-purple discoloration which does not blanch when pressed upon. When it fades it becomes green and brown as the bod   (more info - contusion)

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copper
Symbol Cu. Atomic weight 63.3 Copper is a common metal of a reddish color, both ductile and malleable, and very tenacious. It is one of the best conductors of heat and electricity. It is one of the most useful metals in itself, and also in its alloys, brass and bronze. In addition to being an ess   (more info - copper)

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Coronary Artery Disease (ischemic heart disease)
A type of heart disease where narrowing, hardening (sclerosis) or blockage of one or more of the coronary arterial walls that results in decreased blood supply to the heart (ischemia); a stage of arteriosclerosis involving fatty deposits (atheromas) inside the arterial walls. Complications includ   (more info - Coronary Artery Disease)

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corticosteroid
A class of steroid hormones produced by the adrenal cortex or synthesized; administered as drugs corticosteroids reduce swelling and decrease the body's immune response; "adrenal cortical steroids are used to treat many different conditions" Corticosteroids are involved in a wide range   (more info - corticosteroid)

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cortisone
A corticosteroid hormone (trade name Cortone Acetate) normally produced by the adrenal cortex; is converted to hydrocortisone. A natural glucocorticoid anti-inflammatory agent that is used to treat many inflammatory or autoimmune diseases, including rheumatoid arthritis.   (more info - cortisone)

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coumarin
A white crystalline substance, (C9H6O2), with a vanilla-like odor, regarded as an anhydride of coumaric acid, and used in flavoring. Coumarin in also made artificially.

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Craniosacral
An osteopathic technique for finding and correcting cerebral and spinal imbalances or blockages that may cause tissue, emotional and postural dysfunction. No oils are used.

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creams
Toiletry consisting of any of various substances resembling cream, absorbed by the skin, that have a soothing and moisturizing effect when applied to the skin. A good natural cream will consist of a blend (emulsification) of a vegetable oil plus a fat, with a hydrosol or essential oil (or floral w   (more info - creams)

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creatine
An amino acid that does not occur in proteins but is found in the muscle tissue of vertebrates both in the free form and as phosphocreatine. Creatine is used to store energy for muscle contraction in the form of phosphate molecules. When phosphate molecules are attached to it, it is called creati   (more info - creatine)

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creatinine
A waste product produced by the body during muscle metabolism, after the compound creatine has been metabolized. If the creatinine level increases in the blood, this may indicate decreased kidney function. It can be found in muscle cells, blood, and urine. This is an indicator of renal function.    (more info - creatinine)

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cubital tunnel syndrome
The effect of pressure on the ulnar nerve, one of the main nerves of the hand. It can result in a variety of problems, including pain, swelling, weakness or clumsiness of the hand and tingling or numbness of the ring and small fingers. It also often results in elbow pain on the side of the arm next    (more info - cubital tunnel syndrome)

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curcuma
A genus of about 80 accepted species in the plant family Zingiberaceae (the ginger family) that contains such species as turmeric, zedoary, mango-ginger, and Siam Tulip.

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Curcumin
The coloring principle of turmeric, or curcuma root, extracted as an orange yellow crystalline substance, C14H14O4, with a green fluorescence. It possesses acid properties and with alkalies forms brownish salts. This change in color from yellow to brown is the characteristic reaction of tumeric p   (more info - Curcumin)

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cyclospora
* Cyclospora is a microscopic parasite that infects the small intestine of humans. * Cyclospora is transmitted through food or water contamined by infected feces. Although Cyclospora is not naturally found on fresh fruits and vegetables, contamination may occur during cultivation, harvest,    (more info - cyclospora)

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cysteine
One of the twenty naturally occurring amino acids. Cysteine contains sulfur and is found in most proteins; it oxidizes on exposure to air to form cystine. Although classified as a non-essential amino acid, in rare cases, cysteine may be essential for infants, the elderly, and individuals with cer   (more info - cysteine)

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cystic fibrosis
A common hereditary disease in which exocrine (secretory) glands produce abnormally thick mucus. This mucus can cause problems in digestion, breathing, and body cooling.   (more info - cystic fibrosis)

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cytokines
A class of substances produced by cells of the immune system that can affect the immune response. Cytokines can also be produced in the laboratory by recombinant DNA technology and given to people to affect immune responses. Adverse effects of cytokines have been linked to many disease states and   (more info - cytokines)

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cytotoxic (cytotoxicity)
Refers to a toxic, or poisonous, effect on cells, usually in relation to cancer cells, but not necessarily.

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Dental Caries (cavity)
A soft decayed area in a tooth; progressive decay can lead to the death of a tooth. An infection, bacterial in origin, that causes demineralization and destruction of the hard tissues of the teeth (enamel, dentin and cementum). Cariology is the study of dental caries.    (more info - Dental Caries)

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Guided meditation (creative visualization)
See visualization.

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heart disease (cardiovascular disease)
Disease of the heart or blood vessels, principally cardiac disease, vascular diseases of the brain and kidney, and peripheral arterial disease. Cardiovascular disease is a class of diseases that involve the heart or blood vessels (arteries, capillaries and veins). The causes are diverse but athe   (more info - heart disease)

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hydrocortisone (cortisol)
An adrenal-cortex hormone that is active in carbohydrate and protein metabolism. The major natural glucocorticoid (GC) in humans. It is the primary stress hormone. Cortisol is released in response to stress, sparing available glucose for the brain, generating new energy from stored reserves, and    (more info - hydrocortisone)

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Low-level laser therapy (cold laser therapy)
Low-level laser therapy (LLLT) is a medical and veterinary treatment that uses coherent light beams (lasers or light-emitting diodes) for biostimulation to alter cellular function. The effects of LLLT appear to be limited to a specified set of wavelengths of laser, and though more research is req   (more info - Low-level laser therapy)

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myocardiopathy (cardiomyopathy)
Disease of the heart muscle (usually of unknown origin) that impairs the ability of the heart muscle (myocardium) to pump. Cardiomyopathy is a group of chronic disorders affecting the muscle of the heart resulting in impairment of the pumping function of the heart. This could be secondary to vira   (more info - myocardiopathy)

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Psychotherapy (counselling)
1. The treatment of mental or emotional problems by psychological means; 2. The branch of psychiatry concerned with psychological methods. Psychotherapy (also called Talk therapy) is intended to help people who would like to improve their ability to cope with difficulties and problems in their   (more info - Psychotherapy)

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Qigong (chi kung)
A Chinese system of physical exercises and breathing control related to tai chi. Qigong comes from two Chinese words: Qi (chi) means energy and gong (kung) means a skill or a practice. It seeks to stimulate the flow of qi (the elemental life force of Chinese medicine) along the invisible chann   (more info - Qigong)

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