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Herbology 101 - Herbal Remedies and Herb Information

Disclaimer: This content is provided here for informational purposes only.
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Select a letter to see the herbs & descriptions:

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Ayahuasca (Banisteriopsis caapi)

(Latin American Spanish, from Quechua ayawasca: aya (spirit, ancestor) + wasca (vine).)

1. A tropical vine Banisteriopsis spp. native to the Amazon region, noted for its hallucinogenic properties;
2. Any of various hallucinogenic drinks (psychoactive infusions or decoctions) pr   (more info - Ayahuasca)
WARNING: May cause intense vomiting and occasional diarrhea. MAOIs have potentially lethal dietary and drug interactions.

Bergamot Orange (Citrus bergamia)

1. A small tree of the Orange family (Citrus bergamia), having a roundish or pear-shaped fruit, from the rind of which an essential oil of delicious odor is extracted, much prized as a perfume.
2. The fruit of this tree.

Also see monarda as it is often referred to as 'wild berg   (more info - Bergamot Orange)
WARNING: May cause photosensitivity (redness of the skin) after exposure to ultraviolet light (due to the chemical bergapten, and possibly also citropten, bergamottin, geranial, and neral).

Bitter Orange (Citrus aurantium)

Also called: Neroli, Petitgrain, Orange, Bitter Orange Peel

Parts used: flowers, flower oils, essential oil from the peel, fruit, essential oil from the leaves, seeds.

This multi-purpose citrus fruit tree is a long-appreciated blessing. The refreshing fruit which now g   (more info - Bitter Orange)
WARNING: Topical use may cause photosensitivity.

Black Cohosh (Cimicifuga racemosa)

Also called: Bugbane, Squawroot, black snakeroot, fairy candle, rattleroot, rattleweed, Actaea racemosa.
Use: roots
This plant is not related to Blue Cohosh, but has similar medicinal properties.

Black Cohosh is a perennial shrub, growing a little over a metre high, in    (more info - Black Cohosh)
WARNING: - Do not use while pregnant or lactating. - May cause headaches, abdominal pain, and/or dizziness. - Do not take for a period greater than 6 months, as it is suspected to accelerate breast cancer gr...more

Blue Cohosh (Caulophyllum thalictroides)

In the same family as the Barberry, this plant is also known as Papoose Root. A perennial that can reach almost a metre high, it is a colourful plant with a purplish stem and greenish, yellow and purple flowers. The root decoction is taken as a tea, usually by pregnant women late in the pregnanc   (more info - Blue Cohosh)
WARNING: Seeds are poisonous.

cabbage (Brassica oleracea)

Any of various cultivars of the genus Brassica oleracea grown for their edible leaves or flowers. Cabbage is an esculent vegetable of many varieties, derived from the wild Brassica of Europe. The common cabbage has a compact head of leaves. The cauliflower, Brussels sprouts, etc., are sometimes clas   (more info - cabbage)
WARNING: Raw brassica vegetables contain goitrogens, which can suppress the function of the thyroid gland and induce the formation of a goiter by interfering with iodine uptak...more

Cacao (Theobroma cacao)

Cacao, Also called: Cocoa palm, cocoanut.
(Also see chocolate.)

Chocolate and cocoa contain a high level of flavonoids, specifically epicatechin (a catechin), which may have beneficial cardiovascular effects on health. They also contain flavanols, which have been shown to incre   (more info - Cacao)
PET WARNING: Theobromine, an alkaloid contained in chocolate, is highly toxic to cats and dogs among other animals (horses, rodents, and more). Never give your pet chocolate.

cajuput (melaleuca cajuputi)

A highly stimulating inflammable volatile oil, distilled from the leaves of an East Indian tree. It is greenish in color and has a camphoraceous odor and pungent taste.

It consists mainly of cineol (see terpenes), from which cajuputene, having a hyacinth-like odor, can be obtained by    (more info - cajuput)

Calendula (Pot Marigold) (Calendula officinalis)

The dried flowers are the part that is used in treatment, and usually taken internally (tincture or infusion) or made into an ointment lotion or cream.
   (more info - Calendula (Pot Marigold))
WARNING: Frequent skin contact may result in sensitivity. Do not use during pregnancy. Do not give internally to children.

California Poppy (California Poppy)

Camelina (Camelina sativa)

Annual and biennial herbs in the Brassicaceae family found from Mediterranean to central Asia. It is a cruciferous vegetable, a cousin to mustard, broccoli, canola, cabbage, cauliflower, turnip, radish, horseradish, wasabi, and watercress. C. sativa subsp. linicola is considered a weed in flax field   (more info - Camelina)

camphor (Cinnamonum camphora)

Camphor is a large evergreen tree grown in tropical and subtropic regions. The tree grows incredibly slowly, and is ideally not harvested until it is fifty years old. The wood produces a white crystalline substance which has many uses; they are made into mothballs, lotions and astrigents. Product   (more info - camphor)
WARNING: Do not undiluted, ever. Camphor absorbed by the skin has the effect of locally anesthetizing the area. Ingested or absorbed in sufficient quantity, camphor may cause gastric distress, seizures, dis...more

Capillaris (Capillaris)

Capsicum (Capsicum)

see Cayenne.

Cardamom (Elettaria, Amomum)

1. A rhizomatous herb of India having aromatic seeds used as seasoning, as a condiment, and in medicine;
2. The aromatic seeds of the herb that are used as seasoning like cinnamon and cloves especially in pickles and barbecue sauces.

Cardamom (or cardamon) refers to several pla   (more info - Cardamom)

Cardamon, White (Cardamon, White)

Carob (Ceratania Siliqua)

1. An evergreen Mediterranean leguminous tree with edible pods (the biblical carob);2. A long, sweet, succulent pod containing small beans and sweetish edible pulp; used as animal feed and source of a chocolate substitute;3. The powder from the ground seeds and pods of the carob tree.

   (more info - Carob)

Carpenter's Square (Carpenter's Square)

Carrot (Daucus Carota)

A perennial plant widely cultivated as an annual in temperate and tropical regions in many varieties for its long conical edible roots; the edible root of the cultivated carrot plant, usually deep orange, though purple, red, white, and yellow varieties exist.

The most commonly eaten p   (more info - Carrot)

Cascara Sagrada (Cascara Sagrada)

Cashews (Anacardium occidentale)

1. A kidney-shaped nut edible only when roasted.
2. The tropical American evergreen tree bearing kidney-shaped nuts that are edible only when roasted.

Cashew trees are native in tropical America, but is now naturalized in all tropical countries. Its best-known fruit, a kidney-s   (more info - Cashews)
WARNING: Be careful in handling raw cashews and their unroasted shells, they contain a caustic oil mostly composed of anacardic acids.

Cassia alata (Senna alata)

A tropical shrub (especially of Americas) having yellow flowers and large leaves, whose juice is used as a cure for ringworm and poisonous bites; sometimes placed in genus Cassia.

Also known as the Candle Bush, Candelabra Bush, Empress Candle Plant, Ringworm Tree, or "candletree", Sen   (more info - Cassia alata)

Cassia auriculata (Senna auriculata)

Any of various plants of the genus Senna having pinnately compound leaves and showy usually yellow flowers; many are used medicinally. They constitute a valuable but nauseous cathartic medicine.

Senna was formerly classified in the genus Cassia, hence the secondary name, Cassia auricu   (more info - Cassia auriculata)

Cassia obovata (Senna italica)

A legume tree in the genus Senna.

It is recognized by many other common names based on the regions it grows in. In India, it is known as "Neutral henna". Most botanists and scientists recognize this plant as "Senegal Senna".

Ironically, Italian Senna is a native mostly    (more info - Cassia obovata)

Cassia Tora (Senna tora)

Senna tora (originally described by Linné as Cassia tora) is a legume in the subfamily Caesalpinioideae. Its name has been derived from Sinhala language, in which it is simply called "Tora". It is often confused with Chinese Senna or Sicklepod, S. obtusifolia.

This herb is used   (more info - Cassia Tora)

Castor oil plant (Ricinus communis)

A large shrub of tropical Africa and Asia having large palmate leaves and spiny capsules containing seeds that are the source of castor oil and ricin (a toxin); widely naturalized throughout the tropics. Its seed is the castor bean which, despite its name, is not a true bean.

Alcoholi   (more info - Castor oil plant)
WARNING: The toxicity of raw castor beans due to the presence of ricin is well-known; the lethal dose in adults is considered to be four to eight seeds. The pericarp of castor bean showed central nervous syst...more

Cat's Claw (Uncaria)

There are two species of Cat's Claw, Uncaria tomentosa and Uncaria guianensis, each having different properties and uses. The two are frequently confused but U. tomentosa is the more heavily researched for medicinal use and immune modulation, while U. guianensis has been shown to suppress cartilage   (more info - Cat's Claw)
WARNING: Do not use while pregnant, or trying to conceive. (Do not rely on it as a form of birth control, though.) Side effects may include: headaches, dizziness, and vomiting.

Catnip (Nepeta cataria)

A hairy aromatic perennial herb having whorls of small white purple-spotted flowers in a terminal spike; used in the past as a domestic remedy; strongly attractive to cats.

Also called: Catmint
Use: leaves, stems and florets.

This plant is easy to grow, like oth   (more info - Catnip)

cauliflower (Brassica oleracea)

A cruciferous plant having a large edible head of crowded white flower buds; the compact head of typically white undeveloped flowers, though purple, orange, and green varieties are available.

The brassica oleracea family also includes cabbage, brussels sprouts, kale, broccoli, and col   (more info - cauliflower)
WARNING: Raw brassica vegetables contain goitrogens, which can suppress the function of the thyroid gland and induce the formation of a goiter by interfering with iodine uptak...more

Cayenne (Capsicum Annum)

Cayenne is the dried ripe fruit of Capsicum frutescens;
Paprika is the dried fruit of various Capsicum species.It is a general tonic for the body, in particular for the respiratory and circulatory systems. Cayenne is used to regulate blood flow and to strengthen the heart, arteries and capi   (more info - Cayenne)
WARNING: Individuals with allergies to hot peppers of any kind should avoid using capsicum products. Avoid contact with broken skin, eyes, and mucous membranes. Pregnant and Nursing women should also avoid i...more

Cedar (Cedar)

Celery (Apium graveolens)

A widely cultivated herb of the Parsley family with aromatic leaf stalks that are eaten raw, cooked, or used as seasoning.

Apium graveolens is a plant species in the family Apiaceae commonly known as celery (var. dulce) or celeriac (var. rapaceum), depending on whether the petioles (s   (more info - Celery)

Celosia (Celosia)

chaga mushroom (Inonotus obliquus)

A fungus in Hymenochaetaceae family, that is a parasite found on birch trees and other varietals in birch forests of Russia, Korea, Eastern and Northern Europe, northern areas of the United States, in the North Carolina mountains and in Canada. 'Chaga' is a transliteration of the Russian term 'j   (more info - chaga mushroom)
WARNING: Chaga mushrooms contain extremely high oxalate concentrations, which can be a source of kidney ailments, including kidney stones.

Chang Shan (Dichroa febrifuga)

A flowering plant in the family Hydrangeaceae with a long history in traditional Chinese medicine. It produces an extract febrifugine, which in turn is used to create halofuginone that is used in veterinary medicine. Another active ingredient is isofebrifugine.

Chang Shan is consider   (more info - Chang Shan)

Chaparral (Chaparral)

Chaste Berry (Vitex agnus-castus)

Also called: Chaste Tree, Monk's Pepper, Vitex
Parts used: berries
While Chaste Berry does not contain any hormones in and of itself, it does affect the pituitary gland, inhibiting the secretion of prolactin (the hormone controlling the production of milk in the breasts). This helps t   (more info - Chaste Berry)
WARNING: Do not take while lactating or while pregnant. May cause a mild rash.

Cherry (Prunus Cerasus)

1. Any of numerous trees and shrubs producing a small fleshy round fruit with a single hard stone; many also produce a valuable hardwood.
2. A fruit (drupe) of the cherry tree or shrub with a single hard stone.
3. A red the color of ripe cherries.
4. Wood of any of various cherr   (more info - Cherry)

Chervil (Anthriscus cerefoilium)

A staple in French cuisine, Chervil is a member of the carrot family. Its flavour is a hybrid of aniseed and parsley.
Chervil doesn't like excessive heat, or having its roots disturbed, but given some shade, it is perfect in a container garden. Pinching the tops will prolong the growing p   (more info - Chervil)

Chestnut (Castanea)

The edible nut of any of various chestnut trees of the genus Castanea; any of several attractive deciduous trees yellow-brown in autumn; yield a hard wood and edible nuts in a prickly bur; the wood of any of various chestnut trees of the genus Castanea.

Chestnuts belong to the family    (more info - Chestnut)

Chia (Salvia hispanica)

A species of flowering plant in the mint family, Lamiaceae, native to central and southern Mexico and Guatemala. Salvia columbariae is more commonly known as "golden chia".

Chia is grown commercially for its seed, a food that is rich in omega-3 fatty acids, since the seeds yield 2530   (more info - Chia)

Chickweed (Carophyllaceae)

1. Any of various plants of the genus Stellaria.
2. Any of various plants related to the common chickweed, the seeds and flower buds of which are a favorite food of small birds like finches and other seed-eaters.

There are several closely related plants referred to as chickweed   (more info - Chickweed)

Chicory (Chicory)

Chinese Asparagus (Asparagus cochinchinensis)

Also called asparagus root, Asparagi Radix, Shatavri in India, or tian men dong in Chinese, of which the tubers are used as a kind of herb in Traditional Chinese Medicine.

   (more info - Chinese Asparagus)

Chinese Figwort (Scrophularia ningpoensis)

This plant has been known to traditional Chinese medicine for as long as 2000 years. Its root is harvested in autumn in Zhejiang province and neighboring areas, then dried for later use.

In Traditional Chinese Medicine, it has found use in a formula to treat arthritis. The herb has de   (more info - Chinese Figwort)

Chinese Ginseng (Panax ginseng)

Also called: Ginseng, Korean ginseng, schinsent, ninjin.
Parts used: root.

Ginseng is an adaptogen that has been used in Traditional Chinese Medicine for millennia. It has anti-carcinogenic and antioxidant properties, as well as anti-inflammatory effects.

The act   (more info - Chinese Ginseng)
WARNING: Reported side effects from taking too much ginseng include: nausea, diarrhea, headaches, nose bleeds, high blood pressure, low blood pressure, and breast pain. Excessive quantities may cause insomnia...more

Chinese knotweed (Polygonum multiflorum)

An herbaceous perennial vine growing to 2-4 m tall from a woody tuber with small, white or greenish-white flowers (6-7 mm diameter).

It is used in traditional Chinese medicine, which regards it as having anti-aging properties. It also exhibits strong antioxidant activity and contains    (more info - Chinese knotweed)

Chinese Lantern (Physalis alkegengi)

Also called the "bladder cherry", this ripe fruit is often made into jellies. Historically thought to be a diuretic, this property is not scientifically supported.
WARNING: Unripe fruits may be toxic

Chinese Licorice (Licorice, Chinese)

Chives (Allium schoenoprasum)

A perennial having hollow cylindrical leaves used for seasoning; the smallest edible onion.

A relative of both the onion and garlic, chives prefer full sun to partial shade. Another ideal container herb, they will tolerate a variety of soil conditions, but prefer slightly acidic soil   (more info - Chives)
WARNING: As chives are usually served in small amounts and never as the main dish, negative effects are rarely encountered, although digestive problems may occur following overconsumption.
PET WARNING: As with all alliums, cats, dogs, guinea pigs, and other animals should not be allowed to ingest chives in any form, due to toxicity during digestion.

Chlorella (Chlorella)

Any of the algae of the genus Chlorella, belonging to the phylum Chlorophyta.

Chlorella contains the green photosynthetic pigments chlorophyll-a and -b in its chloroplast. Through photosynthesis, it multiplies rapidly, requiring only carbon dioxide, water, sunlight, and a small amount   (more info - Chlorella)

Chocolate (Theobroma cacao)

Chocolate is the end product of the seeds from the cacao plant. High in theobromine, dark chocolate (at least 70% cocoa content) is a mood elevator as well as having antioxidant properties.

The health benefits of chocolate are related to dark chocolate (minimum seventy percent cocoa)   (more info - Chocolate)
WARNING: There are two primary concerns with chocolate as a health product - lead and high fat content. Both vary with production. Be sure to consider the nutrition label and the manufacturer. 1. Lead in ...more
PET WARNING: Theobromine, an alkaloid contained in chocolate, is highly toxic to cats and dogs among other animals (horses, rodents, and more). Never give your pet chocolate.

Chokeberry (Aronia)

The small apple-shaped or pear-shaped fruit of an American shrub (Aronia arbutifolia) growing in damp thickets; also, the shrub on which they grow. They are species of deciduous shrubs in the family Rosaceae (native to eastern North America) making them relatives of apples, almonds, raspberries, and   (more info - Chokeberry)

Chrysanthemum (Chrysanthemum)

Cibotium (Cibotium)

Cilantro (Coriandrum sativum)

Use: leaves, seeds, and roots.
Also called: fresh coriander, coriander leaves, Chinese parsley,

Old World herb with aromatic leaves and seed resembling parsley used as seasoning or garnish. Cilantro has a very unique flavour that is common in Thai, Indian, and Mexican foods. T   (more info - Cilantro)
WARNING: Coriander can produce an allergic reaction in some people.

Cinnamomum cassia (Cinnamomum cassia)

Chinese cinnamon or Cassia bark (both powdered and in whole, or "stick" form) is used as a flavouring agent for confectionery, desserts, pastries, and meat; it is specified in many curry recipes, where Ceylon cinnamon is less suitable. Cassia is sometimes added to Ceylon cinnamon, but is a much thic   (more info - Cinnamomum cassia)

Cinnamomum subavenium (Cinnamomum subavenium)

Leaves of Cinnamomum subavenium are an important spice, and related to the most commonly used forms of cinnamon.

It is also a Chinese herb that has been suggested for use as a skin whitening agent. The plant contains substances which inhibit production of tyrosinase an enzyme which ca   (more info - Cinnamomum subavenium)

Cinnamon (Cinnamomum)

Cinnamon is a spice derived from the dried aromatic bark of one of several evergreen trees in the genus Cinnamomum, including the Ceylon cinnamon tree. These plants are part of the Lauraceae or laurel family.

Cinnamon is usually sold as rolled strips or ground into a medium fine powde   (more info - Cinnamon)
WARNING: Some cinnamon oil-entrained compounds could prove toxic in high concentrations. Due to a toxic component called coumarin, European health agencies have warned against consuming high amounts of cassia...more

Cistanchis (Cistanchis)

Citrus (Citrus)

1. Any of numerous fruits of the genus Citrus having thick rind and juicy pulp; grown in warm regions;

2. Any of numerous tropical usually thorny evergreen trees of the genus Citrus having leathery evergreen leaves and widely cultivated for their juicy edible fruits having leathery ar   (more info - Citrus)
WARNING: Topical use may cause photosensitivity.

Citrus Peel (Citrus Peel)

See citrus.

Cleavers (Cleavers)

Cloves (Syzygium aromaticum)

Also: Eugenia caryophyllata, or Eugenia aromatica. In Chinese medicine, cloves are: ding xiang.

Clove trees are moderate sized very symmetrical red-flowered evergreens native to Indonesia, though now widely cultivated in the tropics for its flower buds - which are the source of cloves   (more info - Cloves)
WARNING: Clove oil may cause skin irritation and must be used in 1% dilution or less when applied to the skin
PET WARNING: Be careful with smaller animals. High doses of clove oil can actually be used to euthanize, not just anesthetize fish.

Cnidium (Cnidium)

Coccinia indica (Coccinia grandis)

Coccinia is a genus with 28-30 species whose native range extends from Africa to Asia. Of the varieties, the ivy gourd can grow up to four inches per day, blocking other vegetation from receiving much-needed light, and is thus regarded as an invasive weed in many areas.

In Southeast A   (more info - Coccinia indica)

Cockscomb (Cockscomb)

Coconut (Cocos nucifera)

1. A tall palm tree bearing coconuts as fruits; widely planted throughout the tropics;2. large hard-shelled oval nut with a fibrous husk containing thick white meat surrounding a central cavity filled (when fresh) with fluid (coconut water) or milk3. the edible white meat a coconut; often shredded f   (more info - Coconut)

Codonopsis (Codonopsis tangshen)

Also called "Poor Man's Ginseng".
A climbing vine, Codonopsis is a tonic herb which can be used to replace ginseng if it causes problems/side-effects. Codonopsis can be used culinarily, in soups and stews, as well as to make an infusion which can be used either topically or drank as a tea.    (more info - Codonopsis)
WARNING: Do not use while pregnant.

Coffee (Coffea)

1. Any of several small trees and shrubs native to the tropical Old World yielding coffee beans.
2. The "beans" or "berries" (pyrenes/seed) obtained from the drupes of the coffee tree that are ground to make coffee.
3. A beverage consisting of an infusion of ground coffee beans; "he or   (more info - Coffee)
WARNING: Coffee consumption may aggravate preexisting conditions such as gastroesophageal reflux disease, migraines, arrhythmias, and cause sleep disturbances.

Coix (Coix)

Coltsfoot (Tussilago farfara)

Comfrey (Symphytum officinale)

Also called: Ass Ear, Yalluc, Slippery Root, Consormol, Blackwort, and Bruisewort.
Strangely hairy like its cousin Borage, Comfrey when clearly identified is used in poultices and teas to treat an array of ailments such as:
gout, bruises, sprains, skin blemishes, acne, eczema, swelling   (more info - Comfrey)
WARNING: Health Canada has issued a warning not to ingest or use this herb, or any product containing this herb, on broken skin. Certain varieties of Comfrey contain a compound called echimidine which causes ...more

Coptis (Coptis)

Cork Tree (Cork Tree)

Cornsilk (Zea mays)

Elongated stigmas of the corn plant, called silks, emerge from the whorl of husk leaves at the end of the ear. They are often pale yellow and 7 in (178 mm) in length, like tufts of hair in appearance. At the end of each is a carpel, which may develop into a "kernel" if fertilized by a pollen grain.<   (more info - Cornsilk)

Cornus Berry (Cornus Berry)

Corydalis (Corydalis)

Annual or perennial herbs of the genus Corydalis of Himalayan China and South Africa with beautiful compound foliage and spurred tubular flowers.

Corydalis (Greek korydalís "crested lark") is a genus of about 470 species of annual and perennial herbaceous plants in the Papavera   (more info - Corydalis)

Cowslip Primrose (Cowslip Primrose)

Crampbark (Viburnum opulus)

Also called: European Cranberry Bush, Cranberry Tree, Pembina, Guelder Rose
Parts used: branch bark
A bush with white flowers and red berries, found in both Europe and North America. As its name implies, the bark of the plant is an anti-spasmodic that been used to fight all kinds of    (more info - Crampbark)

Cranberries (Vaccinium macrocarpon)

1. Very tart red berry used for sauce or juice.
2. Any of numerous shrubs of genus Vaccinium bearing cranberries (several species of Vaccinum or Oxycoccus).

The high cranberry or cranberry tree is a species of Viburnum (V. Opulus), and the other is sometimes called low cranberr   (more info - Cranberries)
WARNING: A gene (VKORC1, CYP2C9) has been shown to change warfarin sensitivity. This gene may also contribute to bruising susceptibility as a result of cranberries for carriers of the gene. A couple of possibl...more

Cranesbill (Cranesbill)

Cubeb (Cubeb)

Cucumber (Cucumis sativus)

A melon vine of the genus Cucumis, cultivated from earliest times for its cylindrical green fruit; the cylindrical green fruit with thin green rind and white flesh eaten as a vegetable. A widely cultivated plant in the gourd family Cucurbitaceae, related to melons and gourds including, gak, pumpkins   (more info - Cucumber)

Culver's Root (Culver's Root)

Cumin (Cuminum Cyminum)

A dwarf Mediterranean annual umbelliferous herb of the carrot family long cultivated for its aromatic seeds. The plant somewhat resembles fennel, and is a member of the family Apiaceae (along with lovage, parsley, and mustard).

Cumin the spice is the dried seed of the herb.   (more info - Cumin)

Curcuma wenyujin (Curcuma wenyujin)

A member of the curcuma genus that is common in traditional Chinese medicine and has been found to have antioxidative, antimicrobial, and anti-inflammatory properties.

It has been found to be cytotoxic to cervical cancer cells (Curcuma wenyujin extract induces apoptosis and inhibits    (more info - Curcuma wenyujin)

Cyathula (Cyathula)

Cynanchum (Cynanchum)

Cyperus (Cyperus)

False Unicorn (Chamaelirium luteum)

Also called: Helonias Root, Blazing Star, Starwort
Parts used: Root
False Unicorn is a flowering plant natively found in damp areas of eastern North America. It has spiky light purple flowers.
Traditionally considered a "woman's herb" (uterine tonic), it has more recently been    (more info - False Unicorn)
WARNING: Excess intake can cause nausea and vomiting.

Fructus corni (Cornus officinalis)

A species of dogwood known also as Japanese cornel or Japanese cornelian cherry or Cornelian cherries.

In China, Japan, and Korea it is used as a food plant and as a medicinal plant-Shan-zhu-yu,(Chinese) San-syu-yu (Japanese). The plant contains oleanolic acid and ursolic acid. Ursoli   (more info - Fructus corni)

German Chamomile (Matricaria recutita L)

A Eurasian plant with apple-scented foliage and white-rayed flowers and feathery leaves used medicinally; in some classification systems placed in genus Anthemis.

See also Roman Chamomile.

German Chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla) is an annual plant of the composite fami   (more info - German Chamomile)
WARNING: · Do not use tincture or essential oil version during pregnancy. · Chamomile may increase anticoagulant effects. · Allergies to ragweed may be echoed in this family member. · Ve...more

Grapefruit (Citrus paradisi)

1. A citrus tree bearing large round edible fruit having a thick yellow rind and juicy somewhat acid pulp;
2. The large yellow fruit with somewhat acid juicy pulp of the grapefruit tree; usual serving consists of a half.

Grapefruits are a hybrid of the pomelo (C. maxima; also c   (more info - Grapefruit)
WARNING: Grapefruit can have a number of interactions with drugs, often increasing the effective potency of compounds.

green tea (Camellia sinensis)

Leaves from the plant Camellia sinensis that have been steamed and dried without fermenting.

To remain "green tea", they must have undergone minimal oxidation during processing.

Green tea contains epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), a type of catechin. Green tea also conta   (more info - green tea)
WARNING: The tea plant is highly sensitive to (and readily absorbs) environmental pollutants.
  • Green tea can interfere with the body's ability to utilize the anti-cancer drug bortezomib through the pheno...more

Hawthorn (Crataegus)

A thorny spring-flowering shrub or small tree (of the genus Crataegus oxyacantha), having deeply lobed, shining leaves, small, roselike, fragrant flowers, and a fruit called haw. It is much used in Europe for hedges, and for standards in gardens. The American hawthorn is Crataegus cordata, which has   (more info - Hawthorn)
WARNING: Overdose can cause cardiac arrhythmia and dangerously lower blood pressure. Milder side effects include nausea and sedation.

Hazelnut (Corylus)

1. Any of several shrubs or small trees of the genus Corylus bearing edible nuts enclosed in a leafy husk;
2. The nut of any of several trees of the genus Corylus;
Also known as a cob nut or filbert.

Hazelnuts are rich in protein and unsaturated fat. They also contain si   (more info - Hazelnut)

Hemp (Cannabis sativa)

See marijuana.

Horse Chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum)

Common across North America, this nut is a member of the Sapindaceae family and not a true chestnut. The nuts are also poisonous to horses (and most mammals) when raw.

Quercetin 3,4'-diglucoside, a flavonol glycoside can also be found in horse chestnut seeds. Leucocyanidin, leucodelph   (more info - Horse Chestnut)
WARNING: Raw Horse Chestnut seed, leaf, bark and flower are toxic due to the presence of esculin and should not be ingested. Horse chestnut seed is classified by the FDA as an unsafe herb. The...more

Immature Bitter Orange (Citrus aurantium)

see bitter orange.

Juniper (Cupressaceae)

1. A desert shrub of Syria and Arabia having small white flowers; constitutes the juniper of the Old Testament; sometimes placed in genus Genista.
2. A coniferous shrub or small tree with berrylike cones.

The common juniper (J. communis) is a shrub of a low, spreading form, hav   (more info - Juniper)

Lemon (Citrus limon)

1. An oval or roundish fruit resembling the orange, and containing a pulp usually intensely acid. It is produced by a tropical tree of the genus Citrus, the common fruit known in commerce being that of the species C. Limonum or C. Medica (var. Limonum). There are many varieties of the fruit, some of   (more info - Lemon)
WARNING: Topical use may cause photosensitivity.

Lemon eucalyptus (Corymbia citriodora)

The lemon eucalyptus, sometimes called the lemon-scented gum tree, is a relative of the eucalyptus tree, of the same family Myrtaceae (myrtles). This also makes it a relative of the clove, guava, feijoa, and allspice, all of which are woody, with strong essential oils.

Corymbia citrio   (more info - Lemon eucalyptus)

Lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus)

Lemongrass has long been known to help repel insects, but that is only one of the many uses it has.

A fairly common element in Asian cooking, this herb is a delight to have in the house over the winter months. In our northern climes, it will never reach the 3 metres high that it does    (more info - Lemongrass)

Lime (Citrus Medica)

1. A fruit allied to the lemon, but much smaller. There are two kinds; Citrus Medica, var. acida which is intensely sour, and the sweet lime (C. Medica, var. Limetta) which is only slightly sour.
2. The tree which bears it.

Limes grow year-round and are usually smaller and less   (more info - Lime)
WARNING: Topical use may cause photosensitivity. When the skin is exposed to ultraviolet light after lime juice contact, a reaction known as phytophotodermatitis can occur, which can cause darkening of th...more

Maize (Zea mays)

A tall annual or biennial cereal grass bearing kernels on large ears: widely cultivated in America in many varieties; the principal cereal in Mexico and Central and South America since pre-Columbian times.

While yellow maizes derive their color from lutein and zeaxanthin, in red-colou   (more info - Maize)
WARNING: Raw forms are not edible and cannot be digested. Unless properly prepared, that is "nixtamalized", maize will not be a viable source of critical nutrients and malnourishment may arise if used as a sta...more

Marijuana (Hemp) (Cannabis sativa, C indica)

Also known as: Canabis, Grass, Pot, Weed, Ganja, Maryjane
Parts used: Leaves, Flowers, Stems

Cannabis sativa has been cultivated for millennia, and is one of the oldest crops known. It has derived a controversial reputation based on the medicinal and social uses, but it also h   (more info - Marijuana (Hemp))

Neroli (Citrus aurantium amara)

See also: petitgrain, bitter orange
Parts used: flowers

This same citrus plant gives us petitgrain (from the leaves), though the Neroli oil is derived from blooms only. It is also the plant that bears the bitter orange fruit.

Neroil is an expensive oil to extrac   (more info - Neroli)
WARNING: Topical use may cause photosensitivity.

Orange (Citrus)

1. (n) Any citrus tree bearing oranges;
2. (n) the round yellow to orange fruit of any of several citrus trees of the genus Citrus;
3. (n) a river in South Africa that flows generally westward to the Atlantic Ocean;
4. (n) any pigment producing the orange color;
5. (adj)   (more info - Orange)
WARNING: Topical use may cause photosensitivity.

Papaya (Carica papaya)

A tropical American shrub or small tree having huge deeply palmately cleft leaves and large oblong melon-like tropical fruit with yellowish flesh.

Papayas can be used as a food, a cooking aid and in traditional medicine. The stem and bark may be used in rope production. Papaya fruit i   (more info - Papaya)

peppers (Capsicum)

Any of various sweet or pungent capsicum fruits.

Capsicum is a genus of flowering plants in the nightshade family Solanaceae. Among its cousins are tomatoes, eggplants, petunias, tobacco, and potatoes. The name "pepper" came into use because of their similar flavour to the condiment b   (more info - peppers)

Petitgrain (Citrus aurantium)

See also: petitgrain, bitter orange
Parts used: flowers, leaves, fruit

Neroli is the name given to the essential oil from the bitter orange blooms only, where petitgrain essential oil is from the leaves (see below). Neroil is an expensive oil to extract as the blossoms are tiny   (more info - Petitgrain)
WARNING: May cause photosensitivity.

Pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo)

A coarse vine widely cultivated for its large non-keeping fruit (not to be stored for long periods) with firm orange skin and numerous seeds; subspecies of Cucurbita pepo include the summer squashes and a few autumn squashes.

The fruit are usually large, pulpy, deep-yellow, and round,   (more info - Pumpkin)

Quinoa (Chenopodium Quinoa)

The seeds of a kind of goosewort or goosefoot (Chenopodium Quinoa), used in Chile and Peru for making porridge or cakes; also, food thus made.

Quinoa is a pseudocereal rather than a true cereal, or grain, as it is not a member of the true grass family. As a chenopod, quinoa is closely   (more info - Quinoa)
WARNING: The toxicity category rating of quinoa saponins treats them as mild eye and respiratory irritants and as a low gastrointestinal irritant.

rapeseed (Brassica napus L.)

The seed of rape plants (from rapa, Latin for turnip); source of an edible oil.

The bright yellow flowering member of the family Brassicaceae (mustard or cabbage/broccoli family). Rapeseed leaves and stems are also edible, similar to those of the related bok choy or kale.

(more info - rapeseed)
WARNING: Some estimates place current levels of GMO canola at 90% of the global crop.

Rheum palmatum (Rheum palmatum)

Also called: Turkey Rhubarb, Indian rhubarb, Russian rhubarb or rhubarb root. Chinese medicine name: da-huang.

Long used for its laxative properties, Chinese rhubarb is one of the ancient herbal remedies that is still used today -- both in conventional and herbal medicine. Possessing    (more info - Rheum palmatum)

Roman Chamomile (Chamaemelum nobile)

Parts used: flowers
Also called: garden camomile, ground apple, low chamomile, English chamomile, or whig plant.
See also: German chamomile.

Roman chamomile (Chamaemelum nobile) has been used as far back as ancient Egypt, where it was dedicated to the gods.

   (more info - Roman Chamomile)
WARNING: · Do not use tincture or essential oil version during pregnancy. · Chamomile may increase anticoagulant effects. · Allergies to ragweed may be echoed in this family member. · Ve...more

Safflower (Carthamus tinctorius)

A thistle-like Eurasian plant widely grown for its red or orange flower heads and seeds that yield a valuable oil. The flowers of safflower are also used as a dyestuff and in making rouge. It is sometimes also called bastard saffron or false saffron.

Traditionally, the crop was grown    (more info - Safflower)
WARNING: Safflower oil may be a significant source of omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids that do not carry the same health benefits as omega-3s.

Saffron (Crocus sativus)

1. A shade of yellow tinged with orange; 2. The aromatic, dried, pungent stigmas of the Old World saffron crocus;3. An Old World crocus having purple or white flowers with aromatic pungent orange stigmas used in flavoring food.

Saffron is used in cookery, and in coloring confectionery   (more info - Saffron)

tea (Camellia sinensis)

1. A tropical evergreen shrub (Camellia sinensis) or small tree extensively cultivated in e.g. China and Japan and India; source of tea leaves; "tea has fragrant white flowers".
2. Dried leaves of the tea shrub, used to make tea.

Tea proper is brewed from the leaves of Camellia   (more info - tea)
WARNING: The tea plant is highly sensitive to (and readily absorbs) environmental pollutants. Choose organic teas where available.
  • Green tea can interfere with the body's ability to utilize the anti-can...more

Turkey Tail Mushroom (Coriolus versicolor)

Also called: Coriolus mushrooms, Kawaratake, Yun Zhi, rainbow fungus

Turkey tail mushrooms (Coriolus versicolor, Trametes versicolor, Polyporus versicolor) are an extremely common form of polypore mushroom which can be found around the world. They possess antioxidant, anti-tumour, an   (more info - Turkey Tail Mushroom)

Turmeric (Curcuma longa)

1. A widely cultivated tropical plant of India having yellow flowers and a large aromatic deep yellow rhizome; source of a condiment and a yellow dye.
2. The ground dried rhizome of the turmeric plant used as seasoning.

Turmeric is a relative of ginger and a member of the Curcu   (more info - Turmeric)

Vetiver (Chrysopogon zizanioides)

1. A fragrant extract or essential oil obtained from the root of an Indian grass, used in perfumery and aromatherapy.
2. An East Indian grass, known for its fragrant roots which are much used for making mats and screens.

Vetiver grass is grown for many different purposes. The p   (more info - Vetiver)

Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus)

The very large oblong or roundish fruit of a cucurbitaceous plant (Citrullus vulgaris) of many varieties; also, the plant itself.

The fruit sometimes weighs many pounds; its pulp is usually pink in color, and full of a sweet watery juice. It is a native of tropical Africa, but is now    (more info - Watermelon)

Ylang ylang (Cananga odorata)

Oils are distilled from freshly picked flowers, which grow in tropical Asia, like the Philipines, India and Indonesia.

Scent is similar to Jasmine, and it is often called the "flower of flowers".    (more info - Ylang ylang)
WARNING: Do not use while pregnant. Make sure of adequate dilution.


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Information on this website is for information purposes only.
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