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Herbology 101 - Herbal Remedies and Herb Information

Disclaimer: This content is provided here for informational purposes only.
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Ajowan (Trachyspermum ammi)
(Wild Caraway orCarum copticum) The small brownish seeds are remniscent of caraway, and that is why it is often called "wild Caraway". The plant grows in India where the metre-high plants are air-dried, and the seeds are extracted through rubbing. The seeds are used in cooking or simply chewed on their own.
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Ashwagandha (Ashwagandha)

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Balloon Flower (Balloon Flower)

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Bat Flower (Tacca chantrieri)
A relative of yams, Tacca chantrieri grow wild in the tropical forest in Yunnan Province, China, where they can get as tall as 36 inches (~0.91 meters). They grow best in well-drained soil and high humidity but are hardy down to -3C. They get their name from the black flowers that are somewhat bat-shaped, extending up to 12 inches across, with long 'whiskers' that can grow up to 28 inches. There are different color types, including white and brown, both retaining the whiskers of the black var
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Birch, Sweet (Betula lenta)

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Black Haw (Black Haw)

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Black Walnuts (Juglans)
1. Any of various trees of the genus Juglans. The seven or eight known species are all native to the north temperate zone. 2. The nut of any of the various walnut trees having a wrinkled two-lobed seed with a hard shell. Walnuts are thick-shelled, and nearly globular drupes. Walnut oil is extracted from walnut meats and used in cooking, making soap, etc. Raw walnuts contain glyceryl triacylates of the omega-3 fatty acid alpha-linolenic acid (ALA), which is not as effective in humans as ma
WARNING: Walnuts and other tree nuts are important food-allergen sources that have the potential to be associated with life-threatening, IgE-mediated systemic reactions in some individuals.

The roots, nut husks, and leaves of black walnuts secrete a substance into the soil called juglone that is a respiratory inhibitor to some plants. A number of other plants (most notably white birch) are also poisoned by juglone, and should not be planted in close proximity to a black walnut.

Horses are susceptible to laminitis from exposure to black walnut wood in bedding.

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Bladderwrack (Bladderwrack)

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Bugleweed (Bugleweed)

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Bushy Knotweed (Polygonum ramosissimum)
An herbaceous annual plant species native to most of North America. It is often used in place of Chinese knotweed (Polygonum multiflorum) or Japanese knotweed (Polygonum cuspidatum).
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Cardamon, White (Cardamon, White)

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Cashews (Anacardium occidentale)
1. A kidney-shaped nut edible only when roasted. 2. The tropical American evergreen tree bearing kidney-shaped nuts that are edible only when roasted. Cashew trees are native in tropical America, but is now naturalized in all tropical countries. Its best-known fruit, a kidney-shaped nut, grows at the extremity of an edible, pear-shaped hypocarp, about three inches long. The nut is edible only after the caustic oil has been expelled from the shell through roasting. Cashews are high in nutr
WARNING: Be careful in handling raw cashews and their unroasted shells, they contain a caustic oil mostly composed of anacardic acids.

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Cat's Claw (Uncaria)
There are two species of Cat's Claw, Uncaria tomentosa and Uncaria guianensis, each having different properties and uses. The two are frequently confused but U. tomentosa is the more heavily researched for medicinal use and immune modulation, while U. guianensis has been shown to suppress cartilage degradation in joints and may be more useful for osteoarthritis. Both are large, woody and thorny vines (the thorns being the part that gives this plant its name as they closely resemble a cat's c
WARNING: Do not use while pregnant, or trying to conceive. (Do not rely on it as a form of birth control, though.)

Side effects may include: headaches, dizziness, and vomiting.

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cauliflower (Brassica oleracea)
A cruciferous plant having a large edible head of crowded white flower buds; the compact head of typically white undeveloped flowers, though purple, orange, and green varieties are available. The brassica oleracea family also includes cabbage, brussels sprouts, kale, broccoli, and collard greens, though they are of different cultivar groups. Cauliflower is low in fat, low in carbohydrates but high in dietary fibre, folate, water, and vitamin C, possessing a high nutritional density. Caulif
WARNING: Raw brassica vegetables contain goitrogens, which can suppress the function of the thyroid gland and induce the formation of a goiter by interfering with iodine uptake. If you eat a lot of this food raw, you may need iodine as a supplement. Check with your health care provider.

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Chickweed (Carophyllaceae)
1. Any of various plants of the genus Stellaria. 2. Any of various plants related to the common chickweed, the seeds and flower buds of which are a favorite food of small birds like finches and other seed-eaters. There are several closely related plants referred to as chickweed, but which lack the culinary and medicinal properties of plants in the genus Stellaria. Plants in the genus Cerastium are very similar in appearance to Stellaria and are in the same family (Carophyllaceae). Some sp
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Chinese Figwort (Scrophularia ningpoensis)
This plant has been known to traditional Chinese medicine for as long as 2000 years. Its root is harvested in autumn in Zhejiang province and neighboring areas, then dried for later use. In Traditional Chinese Medicine, it has found use in a formula to treat arthritis. The herb has demonstrated a powerful painkilling ability equal to that of cortisone and twice as effective as indomethacin, a popular NSAID used to treat arthritis. Scrophularia exerts these significant analgesic effects with v
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Chinese knotweed (Polygonum multiflorum)
An herbaceous perennial vine growing to 2-4 m tall from a woody tuber with small, white or greenish-white flowers (6-7 mm diameter). It is used in traditional Chinese medicine, which regards it as having anti-aging properties. It also exhibits strong antioxidant activity and contains compounds similar to resveratrol. In unprocessed form it has been applied to the skin to treat skin conditions such as dermatitis and acne. It has also been used as a treatment for erectile dysfunction.
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Cowslip Primrose (Cowslip Primrose)

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Curcuma wenyujin (Curcuma wenyujin)
A member of the curcuma genus that is common in traditional Chinese medicine and has been found to have antioxidative, antimicrobial, and anti-inflammatory properties. It has been found to be cytotoxic to cervical cancer cells (Curcuma wenyujin extract induces apoptosis and inhibits proliferation of human cancer cells in vitro and in vivo 20150221).
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Devil's Claw (Harpagophytum procumbens)
Part used: rhizome. Also known as: Grapple plant, wood spider A South African plant with large tuberous roots that are used medicinally to reduce pain and fever, and to stimulate digestion. European colonists brought devil's claw home where it was used as a decoction to treat arthritis and gastro-intestinal upset. Not to be confused with subspecies of the North American plants Proboscidea which also go by the name Devil's Claw. The constituents thought to be responsible for the anti-in
WARNING: Consult a qualified medical practitioner if you are taking heart medication or blood thinners.
  • May cause diarrhea, possible bradycardia
  • Do not take if you have duodenal or gastric ulcers
  • Do not use while pregnant or breastfeeding.
  • Devil's claw may interfere with the action of ticlopidine and warfarin, and patients should consult with a physician before combining Devil's claw with these medications.
  • In addition, Devil's Claw promotes the secretion of stomach acid, leading to difficulties in those with peptic ulcers, gastritis or excess stomach acid.
  • Care should also be taken for individuals with gallstones.

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Duckweed (Duckweed)

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Feverfew (Tanacetum parthenium)
Also called: Wild chamomile, Bride's buttons. An infusion of Feverfew, or Feverfew leaves (preferably taken with bread) can be used to help alleviate headaches (including migraines), muscle tension, colds, menstrual cramps, hay fever, vertigo, tinnitus, and mild cases of neuralgia and sciatica. Lately it has fallen out of favour, but it has been in use since the first century BC. Testing has verified that it has anti-inflammatory and mild anticoagulant properties. It is not fully understood
WARNING: Do not take in conjunction with blood thinners.
May cause mouth sores (the bread will help prevent that).
Do not take while pregnant or while breastfeeding.

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Fishwort (Fishwort)

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Frankincense (Boswellia cateri)
Also called: Frankincense tears, Olibanum Parts used: resin from the tree A fragrant, aromatic gum resin obtained from various East Indian, Arabian, or East African trees of the genus Boswellia; formerly valued for worship and for embalming and fumigation. A less valuable, commoner sort, comes from the Norway spruce (Abies excelsa) and other coniferous trees. The original frankincense of the ancient Jews is still unidentified. Frankincense has been used for religious and medicinal purpos
WARNING: Extracts may induce minor gastrointestinal distress.

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Hawthorn (Crataegus)
A thorny spring-flowering shrub or small tree (of the genus Crataegus oxyacantha), having deeply lobed, shining leaves, small, roselike, fragrant flowers, and a fruit called haw. It is much used in Europe for hedges, and for standards in gardens. The American hawthorn is Crataegus cordata, which has the leaves but little lobed. Hawthorns are members of the Rosaceae family, and cousins to roses, apples almonds, pears, apricots, plums, cherries, peaches, raspberries, and strawberries. Active in
WARNING: Overdose can cause cardiac arrhythmia and dangerously lower blood pressure. Milder side effects include nausea and sedation.

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Henna (Lawsonia inermis)
1. A thorny tree or shrub of the genus Lawsonia (L. alba).2. the leaves of the henna plant, or a preparation or dyestuff made from them; a reddish brown dye used especially on hair;3. [v] to apply henna to one's hair; "She hennas her hair every month." The powdered leaves of the henna plant furnish a red colouring matter used in the East to stain/dye skin, hair, nails and fingers, fabric and wool, the manes of horses, etc. Henna also acts as an anti-fungal and a preservative for leather and c
WARNING: The name is misused for other skin and hair dyes, such as black henna or neutral henna, which are not derived from the plant, so beware that you are getting true henna from a reputable source.
Henna is known to be dangerous to people with glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency (G6PD deficiency).

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Ho Shou Wu (Ho Shou Wu)

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Indian Tobacco (Nicotiana quadrivalvis)
A species of wild tobacco native to the western United States, where it grows in many types of habitat.
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Jamaican Dogwood (Jamaican Dogwood)

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Japanese knotweed (Polygonum cuspidatum)
Also called: Fallopia japonica, Reynoutria japonica. A member of the family Polygonaceae, and relatives of Chinese knotweed, Bushy knotweed. Japanese knotweed is a large, herbaceous perennial plant native to eastern Asia, specifically Japan, China, and Korea. In Chinese medicine, it is known as Hu zhang (Huzhàng), which translates to "tiger stick." There are also regional names, and it is sometimes confused with sorrel. In Japanese, the name is itadori. Japanese knotweed flowers are
WARNING: Some caution should be exercised when consuming this plant because it, similar to rhubarb, contains oxalic acid, which may aggravate conditions such as rheumatism, arthritis, gout, kidney stones or hyperacidity.

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Knotweed (Polygonum)
A diverse genus of herbs or woody subshrubs of north temperate regions in the Polygonaceae family. Common names include knotweed, knotgrass, bistort, tear-thumb, mile-a-minute, and several others. In traditional Chinese medicine, a Polygonum extract called Rèlínqi-ng Ke-lì is used to treat urinary tract infections. Chinese medicine also uses a Polygonum multiflorum extract called Fo-Ti. Also see: Japanese knotweed, Bushy Knotweed. Between 65 and 300 species are recogni
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Lungwort (Lungwort)

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Marshmallow (Althaea officinalis)

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Meadowsweet (Meadowsweet)

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Milkweed (Milkweed)

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Motherwort (Motherwort)

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Motherwort, Chinese (Motherwort, Chinese)

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Mugwort (Mugwort)

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Oatstraw (Oatstraw)

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Papaya (Carica papaya)
A tropical American shrub or small tree having huge deeply palmately cleft leaves and large oblong melon-like tropical fruit with yellowish flesh. Papayas can be used as a food, a cooking aid and in traditional medicine. The stem and bark may be used in rope production. Papaya fruit is a source of nutrients such as provitamin A carotenoids, vitamin C, folate and dietary fibre. Papaya skin, pulp and seeds also contain a variety of phytochemicals, including lycopene and polyphenols. In preli
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Passion Flower (Passion Flower)

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peyote (Lophophora williamsii)
This flat greyish cactus is sometimes called "mescal" and is legal only for use in Native American spiritual ceremonies. It is a hallucenogenic, owing to the concentrations of mescaline along with 55 other alkalines. Ingestion of "mescal buttons" - small chunks of peyote - can create colourful and creative hallucinations, or it can induce frightening visions of people transforming into dangerous animals and insects.
WARNING: Can induce residual and ongoing panic attacks, and can be dangerous in that it is a psychomimetic. It can give the person ingesting it the same behaviour and perceptions as a clinically psychotic individual.

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Pipewort (Pipewort)

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Pipsissewa (Pipsissewa)

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Purple Coneflower (Echinacea purpura,angustifolia)
Use the roots and flowers. The infusions and decoctions made from this flower have astrigent properties, as well as stimulating the immune system. Many people rely on its effects when they feel a cold coming on.
WARNING: A recent analysis of 59 brand name echinacea products found that 48% did not contain the species of Echinacea on the label and 10% contained no measurable Echinacea. Less than half of the products met the labeled quality standards.
Possible side effects: Headache, dizziness, nausea, constipation, and mild epigastric pain. In rare cases, dermatitis or anaphylaxis results.

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Purple Gromwell (Lithospermum purpurocaeruleum)
Purple Gromwell (also called Stoneseed, or Pearl Plant) is a hardy perennial with red roots and star-shaped leaves. The fruit it bears is notoriously hard, which explains the Greek name, which translates as "Stone seeds". Use externally for rashes and internally for bladder stones
WARNING: Do not take without medical supervision.

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Red Stinkwood (Prunus africana)
Also called: Pygeum, African Prune, African Cherry, or Bitter Almond. Ngwabuzito, Entasesa, Mkonde-konde, and uMkakase are its African names. The African Plum tree is a relative to the roses, along with other plums, cherries, apples, and almonds. It is traditionally used to treat fevers, malaria, arrow poison, stomach pain, as well as for wound dressing, purgative, kidney disease, appetite stimulant, gonorrhoea, and insanity. An extract, pygeum, an herbal remedy prepared from the bark of P
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Rupturewort (Rupturewort)

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Safflower (Carthamus tinctorius)
A thistle-like Eurasian plant widely grown for its red or orange flower heads and seeds that yield a valuable oil. The flowers of safflower are also used as a dyestuff and in making rouge. It is sometimes also called bastard saffron or false saffron. Traditionally, the crop was grown for its seeds, and used for colouring and flavouring foods, in medicines, and making red (carthamin) and yellow dyes, especially before cheaper aniline dyes became available. Safflower seed oil is flavorless a
WARNING: Safflower oil may be a significant source of omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids that do not carry the same health benefits as omega-3s.

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Sandalwood (Santalum album)
Parts used: Oil, wood. Sandalwood is a smallish tree (20-30 feet high) that is native to India. Historically, Sandalwood has been prescribed both internally and topically. It was used for bronchial ailments and as an aphrodisiac. The oil is still used in perfumes. The oil from this tree has restful and relaxing properties. It heightens the ability to concentrate and is a good accompaniment to meditation. Teas can be from a decoction of the wood boiled in water. The same solution can b
WARNING: Do not use the undiluted oils on the skin.
Do not ingest except under the guidance of a qualified professional.

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Sargassum (Sargassum)
A brown algae with rounded bladders forming dense floating masses in tropical Atlantic waters as in the Sargasso Sea. Numerous species are distributed throughout the temperate and tropical oceans of the world, where they generally inhabit shallow water and coral reefs. However, the genus may be best known for its planktonic (free-floating) species. While most species within the class Phaeophyceae (brown algae) are predominantly cold water organisms that benefit from nutrients upwelling, genus
WARNING: Rotting seaweed is a potent source of hydrogen sulfide, a highly toxic gas, and has been implicated in some incidents of apparent hydrogen-sulphide poisoning. It can cause vomiting and diarrhoea.

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Savoury (Winter) (Satureja montana)
Use: flowering tops. Used primarily as a condiment. Growing up to 24 inches tall, Winter Savoury prefers a light sandy soil and full sun. Both savouries are members of the mint family. Winter savoury is called 'medicinally useless' by some herbology texts, and other sources say that it has carminative properties as well as stimulating the appetite.
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Saw Palmetto (Saw Palmetto)

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Seaweed (Algae)
A primitive chlorophyll-containing mainly aquatic eukaryotic organisms lacking true stems and roots and leaves. This is actually a large group of diverse unicellular and multicellular aquatic plants; they grow in both fresh water and seawater and are used commercially as a source of thickeners (agar, agarose, algin, carrageenan) and pigments such as beta carotene. Seaweeds are marine plants of the class Algae, including kelp, dulse, Fucus, Ulva, etc. Algae is simply Latin for "seaweed", an
WARNING: Rotting seaweed is a potent source of hydrogen sulfide, a highly toxic gas, and has been implicated in some incidents of apparent hydrogen-sulphide poisoning. It can cause vomiting and diarrhoea.

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St. John's Wort (Hypericum Perforatum)
Any of numerous plants of the genus Hypericum having yellow flowers and transparently dotted leaves; traditionally gathered on St John's eve to ward off evil. H. perforatum is sometimes called common St John's wort to differentiate it. Also called Goatweed, Klamath Weed. A pretty mid-height plant (80 cm or so) with yellow flowers, St John's Wort is indigenous to Europe, but has been introduced to many temperate areas of the world. It now grows wild in many meadows, including in parts of O
WARNING:
  • Do not drink teas made of the flowers. May result in photosensitivity (and cause skin burns).
  • St John's wort is "associated with aggravating psychosis in schizophrenia".
  • St John's wort is contraindicated in patients on any of the following: Immunosuppressants, Antiarrhythmics, Antiretrovirals, Beta-blockers, Calcium channel blockers, statins, Hormonal contraception, Benzodiazepines, Digoxin, methadone, omeprazole, phenobarbital, theophylline, warfarin, levodopa, buprenorphine, irinotecan, methylphenidate (e.g. Ritalin, Concerta).

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Strawberry (Fragaria)
Various low perennial herbs with many runners and bearing white flowers followed by edible fruits having many small achenes (seeds) scattered on the surface of an enlarged red pulpy berry. Parts used: fruit, leaves Strawberry fruit are an excellent source of vitamin C, and a good source of folate (B9), fisetin, and flavonoids. Strawberries also contain small amounts of: vitamin A, vitamin B(B5 or pantothenic acid, B3 or niacin, B2 or riboflavin,and B6), vitamin E, calcium, potassium, fibre,
WARNING: Allergies to strawberries are not uncommon, with reactions ranging from the mild (hives, itchiness, nasal congestion) to the severe (burning in the lips, mouth, ears, or pharynx; laboured breathing). Response can happen within seconds of eating the food.

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Sundew (Sundew)

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Sunflower (Elettaria, Amomum)
Any plant of the genus Helianthus, so called probably from the form and color of its flower, having large flower heads with dark disk florets and showy yellow rays. The commonly cultivated sunflower is Helianthus annuus, a native of the Americas. Both the seeds and roots of certain varieties are edible. Sunflower oil, extracted from the seeds, is used for cooking and as a carrier oil. Sunflower seeds (fruit) are sold as a snack food, raw or after roasting in ovens, with or without salt and
WARNING: At least one study of a person with a known peanut allergy suffered an acute reaction to a "nut-free" butter containing sunflower seeds.

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Swallow Wort (Swallow Wort)

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Sweet Almond (prunus amygdalus dulcis)
Parts used: nut Native to the Middle East, this nut has been used as a moisturizing agent for millennia. It can be used topically as well as internally. Sweet almond is still widely used in cosmetics and as a carrier oil. It contains essential fatty acids that are good for nourishing the skin as well as the internal functioning of the body. See also Almond.
WARNING: Do not use without knowing if the recipient has nut allergies.

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sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas)
The edible tuberous root of the sweet potato vine grown widely in warm regions of the United States. Sweet potatoes are not true potatoes (Solanum tuberosum, which are members of the nightshade family), instead they are relatives of morning glories. Some varieties are ornamental and known as "tuberous morning glories". Sweet potato varieties with white or pale yellow flesh are less sweet and moist than those with red, pink or orange flesh. Although the soft, orange sweet potato is often calle
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Sweetgrass (Hierochl÷e odorata)
Also called: "Hair of the Earth Mother". A plant used in Aboriginal smudging ceremonies, the smoke of this herb is used to help purge grief. Sweetgrass is a northern plant found in both North America and Europe (circumpolar), which has led to some interesting speculation as to how it was spread - whether it has grown since the landmasses were one, or carried with migrating peoples. It is also used for colds and fevers.
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Tansy (Tanacetum vulgare)
A common perennial aromatic herb native to Eurasia having buttonlike yellow flower heads and bitter-tasting pinnate leaves that are sometimes used medicinally. Also called Cow buttons, Scented fern, Bitter Buttons, Cow Bitter, and Mugwort. For many years, tansy has been used as a medicinal herb despite its toxicity. 19th-century Irish folklore suggests bathing in a solution of tansy and salt as a cure for joint pain. A bitter tea (tisane) made with tansy flowers has been used for centuries as
WARNING: Tansy contains a volatile oil which can cause contact dermatitis in sensitive individuals. If taken internally, toxic metabolites are produced as the oil is broken down in the liver and digestive tract.
Tansy also contains thujone, a GABA receptor antagonist that sensitises neurons

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Wahoo (Wahoo)

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Wasabi (Wasabia japonica)
A member of the Brassicaceae family, which includes cabbage, horseradish, broccoli, kale and mustard. Wasabi is also called Japanese horseradish, although horseradish is a different plant (which is often used as a substitute for wasabi). The chemical in wasabi that provides for its initial pungency is the volatile allyl isothiocyanate. It also contains myrosinase, which can be converted to sulfurophane, a chemical that exhibits anti-cancer, antidiabetic, and antimicrobial properties, in the b
WARNING: Raw brassica vegetables contain goitrogens, which can suppress the function of the thyroid gland and induce the formation of a goiter by interfering with iodine uptake. If you eat a lot of this food raw, you may need iodine as a supplement. Check with your health care provider.

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Watercress (Nasturtium officinale)
1. Any of several perennial water-loving cresses that grow in clear ponds and streams; 2. Colour: of a moderate yellow-green color that is greener and deeper than moss green and yellower and darker than pea green. Watercresses are members of the Family Brassicaceae or cabbage family, botanically related to garden cress, broccoli, cauliflower, cabbage, mustard, wasabi, horseradish, and radish -- all noteworthy for a peppery, tangy flavour. They are not related to the flower also called "na
WARNING: Raw brassica vegetables contain goitrogens, which can suppress the function of the thyroid gland and induce the formation of a goiter by interfering with iodine uptake. If you eat a lot of this food raw, you may need iodine as a supplement. Check with your health care provider.

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Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus)
The very large oblong or roundish fruit of a cucurbitaceous plant (Citrullus vulgaris) of many varieties; also, the plant itself. The fruit sometimes weighs many pounds; its pulp is usually pink in color, and full of a sweet watery juice. It is a native of tropical Africa, but is now cultivated in many countries. Watermelon contains about 6% sugar and 92% water by weight. As with many other fruits, it is a source of vitamin C. It is mildly diuretic and also contains large amounts of beta c
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Wheat Germ (Wheat Germ)

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White Cardamon (Amomum cardamon)

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White Oak (White Oak)

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White Pine (White Pine)

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White Pond Lily (White Pond Lily)

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Wild Celery (Wild Celery)

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Wild Cherry (Prunus serotina)
The wild cherry; as, Prunus serotina (wild black cherry), valued for its timber; P. Virginiana (choke cherry), an American shrub which bears astringent fruit; P. avium and P. Padus, European trees (bird cherry). As the main ancestor of the cultivated sweet cherry, the Wild cherry is one of the two cherry species which supply most of the world's commercial cultivars of edible cherry (the other is the Sour cherry Prunus cerasus, mainly used for cooking; a few other species have had a very small
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Wild Indigo (Baptisia australis)
A flowering plant in the family Fabaceae (legumes). It is native to much of central and eastern North America and is particularly common in the Midwest, but it has also been introduced well beyond its natural range. Naturally it can be found growing wild at the borders of woods, along streams or in open meadows. The common name "blue false indigo" is derived from it being used as a substitute for the superior dye-producing indigo plant Indigofera tinctoria.
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Wild Lettuce (Lactuca)
There are two main species of lettuce commonly refered to as "wild lettuce": one common in North America (Canada lettuce) and the other common to Europe (Prickly Lettuce). Canada lettuce (Lactuca canadensis): This is a generally biennial herb in the daisy family growing from a taproot to maximum heights between one half and two meters or more. The leaves are deeply lobed and occasionally toothed. It resembles its cousin the dandelion, though with many head, each up to a centimeter wide when
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Wild Licorice (Glycyrrhiza lepidota)

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Wild Yam (Dioscorea villosa)
Also called: Aluka, Rheumatism Root, China Root Parts used: root and rhizomes. There are many varieties that form the group of edible roots we refer to as "yams". The most commonly used one in terms of Herbology is Dioscorea villosa, or Wild Yam, which is found in more temperate climes of North America, specifically, the Eastern United States and Ontario. From this yam diosgenin is extracted and used for its steroidal sapogenin. This is converted to sex hormones, particularly progestero
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Willow, Black (Willow, Black)

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Willow, White (Willow, White)

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Witch Hazel (Hamamelis)
1. any of several shrubs or trees of the genus Hamamelis; bark yields an astringent lotion. 2. lotion consisting of an astringent alcoholic solution containing an extract from the witch hazel plant (Hamamelis Virginica), which blossoms late in autumn.
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wolfberry (Lycium barbarum)
Goji berries (also known as Chinese wolfberry, bocksdorn, or matrimony vine) have been an integral part of the Chinese medical tradition for almost 2,000 years. They are related to potatoes, tomatoes, eggplants, deadly nightshade, chili peppers, and tobacco. High in antioxidants, Goji contains phytochemicals and other nutrients including: calcium, potassium, zeaxanthin, lutein, lycopene, phenolic compounds, selenium, riboflavin, vitamin C, zinc, polysaccharides, carbohydrates, linoleic acid,
WARNING: In vitro testing has shown Wolfberry tea to inhibit warfarin metabolism.
Organochlorine pesticides are conventionally used in commercial wolfberry cultivation to mitigate destruction of the delicate berries by insects. High levels of insecticide residues (including fenvalerate, cypermethrin, and acetamiprid) and fungicide residues (such as triadimenol and isoprothiolane), have been detected by the United States Food and Drug Administration in some imported wolfberries and wolfberry products of Chinese origin, leading to the seizure of these products.

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Wood Betony (Wood Betony)

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Woodruff (Asperula odorata)
With a fragrance remniscent of vanilla and fresh hay, this wonderful gem will be a perennial in areas where the winters are gentle or if it is brought inside. Grows to about eight inches high, in sun or semi-shade. Best known as a fragrance in certain german wines.
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Wormseed (Wormseed)

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Wormwood (Artemisia absinthium)
1. Any of several low composite herbs of the genera Artemisia or Seriphidium. Also called Ajenjo and Old Woman. Most commonly: a grey-green/whitish composite shrub (Artemisia Absinthium) growing about 1 foot high, having a bitter and slightly aromatic taste, formerly used as a tonic and a vermifuge, and to protect woolen garments from moths. The leaves and flowering tops are gathered when the plant is in full bloom, and dried naturally or with artificial heat. Its active substances includ
WARNING: This plant has been ruled DANGEROUS by the US Food and Drug Administration and the Australian government.
The volatile oil of wormwood is a narcotic poison.

DO NOT MIX WITH ALCOHOL.
Can cause restlessness, vomiting, vertigo, tremors, renal damage and convulsions.
Wormwood can be habit forming.

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Yarrow (Achillea millefolium)
The flowers are used for their ability to staunch bleeding, such as nosebleeds and cuts, to help menstrual issues and to treat colds and the flu. Take internally as a tea (infusion), up to three cups a day. To treat cuts and scrapes swab the area liberally.
WARNING: Do not use while pregnant

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Yellow Dock (Yellow Dock)

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